PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Reinforcement

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Published on 6 Jul 2012
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures
Chapter 15 Differential Reinforcement
Differential reinforcement involved applying reinforcement and extinction to
increase or decrease the occurrence of a behavior
Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) is a behavioral
procedure used to increase the frequency of a desirable behavior and to
decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviors
o The desirable behavior is reinforced each time it occurs, resulting in
an increase in the future probability of the desirable behavior; at the
same time, any undesirable behaviors that may interfere are not
reinforced, resulting in the decrease in its occurrence
DRA is a procedure for strengthening a desirable behavior, however, the
desirable behavior must be occurring at least occasionally if you are to
reinforce it
o You must be able to identify a reinforce that you can use each time the
behavior occurs, if you cannot identify a reinforce or if you have no
control over the reinforce, you cannot use DRA
How to use DRA effectively:
o Define the desirable behavior
o Define the undesirable behavior
o Identify the reinforce
One way to identify it is through preference procedure where
the researcher identifies a number of potential reinforcers,
presents the potential reinforcers to the person and records
which ones he or she approaches (can be conducted as a single
stimulus assessment, paired stimulus assessment or multiple
stimulus assessment)
A reinforcer assessment can be done in which you deliver the
item contingent on a behavior and show that the behavior
increased
In the single stimulus assessment procedure, each potential
reinforce is presented one at a time numerous times and the
percentage of each item being chosen is calculated
In the paired stimulus assessment procedure (also called a
forced choice or paired choice procedure), 2 potential
reinforcers are presented and the percentage is calculated
The multiple stimulus assessment presents multiple stimuli
and the research records which reinforce the individuals
approaches or chooses first and then removes it and observes
again this procedure is called multiple stimulus without
replacement (MSWO) procedure
Another method for discovering reinforcers is to make each
potential reinforce contingent on an operant response
o Reinforce the desirable behavior immediately and consistently
o Eliminate reinforcement for the undesirable behaviors
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Document Summary

Differential reinforcement involved applying reinforcement and extinction to increase or decrease the occurrence of a behavior. How to use dra effectively: define the desirable behavior, define the undesirable behavior, identify the reinforce. A reinforcer assessment can be done in which you deliver the item contingent on a behavior and show that the behavior increased. In the single stimulus assessment procedure, each potential reinforce is presented one at a time numerous times and the percentage of each item being chosen is calculated. In the paired stimulus assessment procedure (also called a forced choice or paired choice procedure), 2 potential reinforcers are presented and the percentage is calculated. The multiple stimulus assessment presents multiple stimuli and the research records which reinforce the individuals approaches or chooses first and then removes it and observes again this procedure is called multiple stimulus without replacement (mswo) procedure.

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