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Chapter 17

PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 17: Reinforcement

Course Code
Zachariah Campbell

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Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures
Chapter 17 Using Punishment: Time-out and Response Cost
Punishment occurs when a behavior is followed by a consequence that
results in a decrease in the future probability of the behavior
o The consequence may involve the presentation of an aversive
stimulus or event (positive punishment), or the removal of a
reinforcing stimulus or event (negative punishment), to weaken
Time-out is defined as the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a brief
period contingent on the problem behavior
Time out is short for time-out from positive reinforcement; two types of
time-outs: exclusionary and nonexclusionary
o Nonexclusionary time-out is most likely used when the person can be
removed from the reinforcing activities or interactions while still
remaining in the room, and the presence of the person in the room
will not be disruptive to others in the environment if the latter
cannot be met, then exclusionary time out is used
Whenever you use time-out (or any punishment), you should also use a
differential reinforcement procedure time out decreases problem behavior,
differential reinforcement increases an alternative behavior
Time-out is appropriate with social or tangible reinforcers
The time-in environment (the environment where the problem behavior
occurs) must consist of positively reinforcing activities or interactions for
timeout to be effective (time-in environment is positively reinforcing and
time-out environment is not reinforcing or is less reinforcing)
Time-out could negatively reinforce behaviors maintained by escape and is
ineffective against behavior maintained by sensory stimulation
Contingent observation occurs when an individuals is removed from a
reinforcing area and is forced to watch individuals act within the area before
being allowed back into it
Response cost is the removal of a specified amount of a reinforcer
contingent on the occurrence of a problem behavior; it’s a negative
punishment procedure when it results in a decrease in the future probability
of the problem behavior
Response cost, time-out and extinction procedures are used to decrease a
problem behavior
o With extinction, the problem behavior is no longer followed by the
reinforcing event that previously maintained the behavior
o With time-out, the person is removed from access to all sources of
reinforcement contingent on the problem behavior
o With response cost, a specific amount of a reinforcer (such as money)
the person already possesses is removed after the problem behavior
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