PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 24: Progressive Muscle Relaxation, Diaphragmatic Breathing, Autonomic Nervous System

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Published on 6 Jul 2012
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Behavioral Modification: Principles and Procedures
Chapter 24 Fear and Anxiety Reduction Procedures
A fear is composed of both operant and respondent behavior; typically, a
person is afraid of a particular stimulus or stimulus situation when the
stimulus is present, the person experience unpleasant bodily responses
(autonomic nervous system arousal) and engages in escape or avoidance
behavior the bodily responses are respondent behaviors we call anxiety
the autonomic nervous system arousal involved in anxiety is an
establishing operation that makes it more likely that the person will engage
in escape or avoidance behavior at that time
CS (feared conditions stimulus) CR (conditioned response = anxiety)
A number of behavior modification procedures are used to help people
overcome problems of fear or anxiety, these procedures involve relaxation
training, systematic desensitization, and in vivo desensitization
Relaxation training procedures are strategies that people use to decrease
the autonomic arousal that they experience as a component of fear and
anxiety problems the person engages in specific relaxation behaviors that
result in bodily responses opposite to the autonomic arousal
o 4 common relaxation training approaches are progressive muscle
relaxation, diaphragmatic breathing, attention-focusing exercises and
behavioral relaxation training
In progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), the person systematically tenses
and relaxes each of the major muscle groups in the body; should be
conducted in a quiet room with no distractions once you learn how to
relax each muscle group, you don't have to continuously do it, you can just
focus on the ones that experience the most tension
Diaphragmatic breathing, also called deep breathing or relaxed breathing,
is where the person breathes deeply in a slow, rhythmic fashion. At each
inhalation, the person uses the muscles of the diaphragm to pull oxygen deep
into the lungs because anxiety or autonomic arousal most often involves
shallow, rapid breathing, diaphragmatic breathing decreases anxiety by
replacing this breathing pattern
o Inhales for 3-5 seconds until lungs are filled with air, eyes closed; best
to inhale through the nose
Attention-focusing exercises produce relaxation by directing attention to a
neutral or pleasant stimulus to remove the person’s attention from the
anxiety-producing stimulus (ex., meditation or hypnosis or guided imagery)
o In guided imagery the person visualized or imagine pleasant scenes or
images
In behavioral relaxation training, the person is taught to relax each muscle
group in the body by assume relaxed postures (does not tense & relax)
o 3 components: focus on muscle tension, correct breathing, attention
focusing
Systematic desensitization is where the person with a phobia practices
relaxation while imagine scenes of fear-producing stimulus
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Document Summary

Chapter 24 fear and anxiety reduction procedures. The autonomic nervous system arousal involved in anxiety is an establishing operation that makes it more likely that the person will engage in escape or avoidance behavior at that time. Cs (feared conditions stimulus) cr (conditioned response = anxiety) A number of behavior modification procedures are used to help people overcome problems of fear or anxiety, these procedures involve relaxation training, systematic desensitization, and in vivo desensitization. Diaphragmatic breathing, also called deep breathing or relaxed breathing, is where the person breathes deeply in a slow, rhythmic fashion. In behavioral relaxation training, the person is taught to relax each muscle group in the body by assume relaxed postures (does not tense & relax: 3 components: focus on muscle tension, correct breathing, attention focusing. Systematic desensitization is where the person with a phobia practices relaxation while imagine scenes of fear-producing stimulus.

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