Textbook Notes (381,094)
CA (168,350)
UTSC (19,304)
Psychology (10,047)
PSYB45H3 (1,085)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1

2 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 1: Introduction
Characteristics that define behaviour:
Behaviour is what people do and say, is not a static characteristic of person
Have one or more dimensions that can be measured: frequency- count the number of times a
behaviour occurs, duration- time from when an instance of behaviour starts until it stops,
intensity- physical force involved in behaviour = all physical dimensions
Can be observed, described, recorded
Can impact on environment, including physical or social
Is lawful, occurrence is systematically influenced by environmental events
May be overt or covert. Often behaviour modification procedures used to understand and change
overt behaviours. Overt: an action that can be observed and recorded by a person other than the
one engaging in behaviour. Covert: private events, not observable by another person ie. Thinking.
Behaviour modification:
Field of psychology concerned with analyzing and modifying human behaviour
Analyzing: identifying functional relationship between environmental events and particular
behaviour to understand reasons for behaviour or to determine why person behaved as he or she
did
Modifying: developing and implementing procedures to help people change behaviour. Involves
altering environmental events so as to influence behaviour
Characteristics:
Focus on behaviour. Designed to change behaviour, not personal characteristic or trait.
Deemphasizes labelling
Behavioural excesses and deficits are targets for change with behaviour modification
Behaviour to be modified is called target behaviour
Excess: an undesirable target behaviour the person wants to decrease in frequency, duration,
intensity. Ie. Smoking
Deficit: desirable target behaviour person wants to increase in frequency, duration, intensity. Ie.
Exercise
Procedures based on behavioural principles
Scientific study of behaviour is called experimental analysis of behaviour
Scientific study of human behaviour is called applied behaviour analysis
Emphasis on current environmental events. Human behaviour is controlled by events in immediate
environment, goal of behaviour modification is to identify those events, once controlling variables
have been identified, they are altered to modify the behaviour
Precise description of behaviour modification procedures- involves specific changes in
environmental events that are functionally related to behaviour
Treatment implemented by people in everyday life
Measurement of behaviour change
De-emphasis on past events as causes of behaviour
Rejection of hypothetical underlying causes of behaviour
Important figures
Pavlov
Experiments that uncovered the basic processes of respondent conditioning
Reflex could be conditioned to neutral stimulus
He presented neutral stimulus at same time that he presented food to dog, dog then salivated in
response to sound of metronome alone conditioned reflex
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Description
Chapter 1: Introduction Characteristics that define behaviour: • Behaviour is what people do and say, is not a static characteristic of person • Have one or more dimensions that can be measured: frequency- count the number of times a behaviour occurs, duration- time from when an instance of behaviour starts until it stops, intensity- physical force involved in behaviour = all physical dimensions • Can be observed, described, recorded • Can impact on environment, including physical or social • Is lawful, occurrence is systematically influenced by environmental events • May be overt or covert. Often behaviour modification procedures used to understand and change overt behaviours. Overt: an action that can be observed and recorded by a person other than the one engaging in behaviour. Covert: private events, not observable by another person ie. Thinking. Behaviour modification: • Field of psychology concerned with analyzing and modifying human behaviour • Analyzing: identifying functional relationship between environmental events and particular behaviour to understand reasons for behaviour or to determine why person behaved as he or she did • Modifying: developing and implementing procedures to help people change behaviour. Involves altering environmental events so as to influence behaviour Characteristics: • Focus on behaviour. Designed to change behaviour, not personal characteristic or trait. Deemphasizes labelling • Behavioural excesses and deficits are targets for change with behaviour modification • Behaviour to be modified is called target behaviour • Excess: an undesirable target behaviour the person wants to decrease in frequency, duration, intensity. Ie. Smoking • Deficit: desirable target behaviour person wants to increase in frequency, duration, intensity. Ie. Exercise • Procedures based on behavioural principles • Scientific study of behaviour is called experimental analysis of behaviour • Scien
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