Textbook Notes (381,160)
CA (168,376)
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Psychology (10,052)
PSYB45H3 (1,085)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 3: Graphing Behaviour and Measuring Change
Graph: visual representation of occurrence of behaviour over time
6 components are necessary for a graph to be complete:
1.Y-axis and x-axis. On most graphs, x-axis usually one or two times longer than y-axis
2.Labels for y-axis and x-axis. Y- behaviour and dimension of behaviour. X- unit of time during which
behaviour is recorded
3.Numbers on y-axis and x-axis. Y- numbers indicate units of measurement of behaviour. X- numbers
indicate units of measurement of time. There should be hash mark
4.Data points
5.Phase lines: vertical line on graph that indicates change in treatment
6.Phase labels. Baseline is label most often given to no-treatment phase
Research designs
Research designs: determine whether treatment (independent variable) was responsible for
observed change in target behaviour (dependent variable) and to rule out possibility that
extraneous variables caused the behaviour to change
Functional relationship (between procedure and target behaviour): when researcher shows that
behaviour modification procedure causes a target behaviour to change
A-B design
oSimplest type of design used in behaviour modification. A=baseline, B= treatment
oDoes not rule out other causes, rarely used in behaviour modification
oMore interested in demonstrating change in behaviour than proving behaviour mod.
Change the behaviour
A-B-A-B reversal design
oExtension of simple A-B design
oBaseline and treatments phases implemented twice
oMay not be ethical to remove second baseline if behaviour is dangerous
oMust be fairly certain that level of behaviour will reverse when treatment is withdrawn, if it
fails to then functional relationship is not shown
Multiple-baseline design
oMultiple-baseline-across-subjects design: baseline and treatment phase for same target
behaviour of two or more different subjects
oMultiple-baseline-across-behaviours design: baseline and treatment phase for two or more
different behaviours of same subject
oMultiple-baseline-across-settings design: baseline and treatment phase for two or more
settings in which same behaviour of same subject is measured
oMay be used if
Interested in same target behaviour exhibited by multiple subjects
Have targeted more than one behaviour of same subject
When measuring a subjects behaviour across 2 or more settings
Alternating-treatments design
oBaseline and treatment conditions are conducted in rapid succession and compared with
each other
Changing-criterion design
oIncludes baseline and treatment phase
oWithin treatment phase, sequential performance criteria are specified
oEffectiveness of treatment is determined by whether subjects behaviour changes to meet
the changing performance criteria
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Description
Chapter 3: Graphing Behaviour and Measuring Change Graph: visual representation of occurrence of behaviour over time 6 components are necessary for a graph to be complete: 1. Y-axis and x-axis. On most graphs, x-axis usually one or two times longer than y-axis 2. Labels for y-axis and x-axis. Y- behaviour and dimension of behaviour. X- unit of time during which behaviour is recorded 3. Numbers on y-axis and x-axis. Y- numbers indicate units of measurement of behaviour. X- numbers indicate units of measurement of time. There should be hash mark 4. Data points 5. Phase lines: vertical line on graph that indicates change in treatment 6. Phase labels. Baseline is label most often given to no-treatment phase Research designs Research designs: determine whether treatment (independent variable) was responsible for observed change in target behaviour (dependent variable) and to rule out possibility that extraneous variables caused the behaviour to change Functional relationship (between procedure and target behaviour): when researcher shows that behaviour modification procedure causes a target behaviour to change A-B design o Simplest type of design used in behaviour modification. A=baseline, B= treatment o Does not rule out other causes, rarely used in behaviour modification o More interested in demonstrating change in behaviour than proving behaviour mod. Change the behaviour A-B-A-B reversal design o Extension of simple A-B design o Baseline and
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