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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

2 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 4: Reinforcement
Reinforcement: process in which behaviour is strengthened by immediate consequence that reliably
follows its occurrence that results in strengthening of behaviour
Operant behaviour: acts on environment to produce a consequence and in turn, is controlled by or occurs
again in future as result of its immediate consequence. Consequence that strengthens an operant
behaviour is reinforce
Positive reinforcement:
Occurrence of behaviour
Followed by addition of stimulus or increase in intensity of stimulus
Results in strengthening of behaviour
Negative reinforcement:
Occurrence of behaviour
Followed by removal of stimulus or decrease in intensity of stimulus
Results in strengthening of behaviour
Stimulus: object or event that can be detected by one of senses
Positive reinforcer: stimulus presented or appears after behaviour
Aversive stimulus: stimulus that is removed or avoided after behaviour
Social reinforcement: when behaviour produces a reinforcing consequence through actions of another
person
Automatic: when behaviour produces reinforcing consequence through direct contact with physical
environment
Premack principle: type of positive reinforcement involves opportunity to engage in high probability
behaviour as consequence for low probability behaviour, to increase the low probability behaviour
Negative reinforcement: escape and avoidance
Escape: occurrence of behaviour results in termination of aversive stimulus that was already present
when behaviour occurred
Avoidance behaviour: occurrence of behaviour prevents presentation of aversive stimulus
Unconditioned (primary)reinforcers: natural reinforcers. Function as reinforcers for first time they are
presented to most human beings
Conditioned (secondary) reinforcers: stimulus that was once neural stimulus does not currently function
as reinforce but became established as reinforce by being paired with an unconditioned reinforce or an
already established conditioned reinforcer
Generalized conditioned reinforce: when conditioned reinforce is paired with a wide variety of other
reinforcers.
ie. Money
Factors that influence the effectiveness of reinforcement
Immediacy
oFor consequence to be most effective as reinforce, it should occur immediately after
behaviour occurs (after response)
oIf time between response and consequence becomes too long and there is no contiguity,
consequence will not have an effect on behaviour
Contingency
oIf response is consistently followed by immediate consequence, that consequence is more
likely to reinforce response
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Description
Chapter 4: Reinforcement Reinforcement: process in which behaviour is strengthened by immediate consequence that reliably follows its occurrence that results in strengthening of behaviour Operant behaviour: acts on environment to produce a consequence and in turn, is controlled by or occurs again in future as result of its immediate consequence. Consequence that strengthens an operant behaviour is reinforce Positive reinforcement: Occurrence of behaviour Followed by addition of stimulus or increase in intensity of stimulus Results in strengthening of behaviour Negative reinforcement: Occurrence of behaviour Followed by removal of stimulus or decrease in intensity of stimulus Results in strengthening of behaviour Stimulus: object or event that can be detected by one of senses Positive reinforcer: stimulus presented or appears after behaviour Aversive stimulus: stimulus that is removed or avoided after behaviour Social reinforcement: when behaviour produces a reinforcing consequence through actions of another person Automatic: when behaviour produces reinforcing consequence through direct contact with physical environment Premack principle: type of positive reinforcement involves opportunity to engage in high probability behaviour as consequence for low probability behaviour, to increase the low probability behaviour
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