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Chapter 5&6

Chapter 5 & 6

by OneClass8099 , Winter 2011
2 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell
Chapter
5&6

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Chapter 5: Extinction
Extinction: a behaviour that has been reinforced for a period of time was no longer reinforced and
therefore, the behaviour stopped occurring
Basic principle of behaviour
Extinction occurs when:
oA behaviour that has been previously reinforced
oNo longer results in reinforcing consequences
oThere, behaviour stops occurring in future
One characteristic of extinction process is once behaviour is no longer reinforced, it often increases
briefly in frequency, duration, or intensity before it decreases and ultimately stops, called
extinction burst
Another characteristic: novel behaviours: behaviours that do not typically occur in a particular
situation
Spontaneous recovery: behaviour may occur again even after it has not occurred for some time
oNatural tendency for behaviour to occur again in situations that are similar to those in
which it occurred before extinction
Two procedural variations/types of reinforcement: positive and negative reinforcement
If behaviour is positively reinforced consequence is applied or added after behaviour
If negatively reinforced behaviour results in removal or avoidance of aversive stimulus
Extinction means removing reinforce for behaviour
Factors that influence extinction:
oReinforcement schedule before extinction: partly determines whether extinction results in
rapid decrease in behaviour or more gradual decrease
oOccurrence of reinforcement after extinction: if reinforcement occurs in course of extinction,
it takes longer for behaviour to decrease
Chapter 6: Punishment
Definition of punishment:
1.A particular behaviour occurs
2.Consequence immediately follows the behaviour
3.As a result, behaviour is less likely to occur again in the future (behaviour weakened
Punisher (aversive stimulus): consequence that makes a particular behaviour less likely to occur in
future
Positive punishment:
1.Occurrence of a behaviour
2. Is followed by presentation of aversive stimulus
3.And as result, behaviour is less likely to occur in future
Negative punishment:
1.Occurrence of behaviour
2. Is followed by removal of reinforcing stimulus
3.And as a result, behaviour is less likely to occur in future
Unconditioned punishers: behaviour punished by naturally aversive events without any prior
training or experience
Conditioned punisher: stimuli or events that function as punishers only after being paired with
unconditioned punishers or other existing conditioned punishers
Generalized conditioned punisher: paired with variety of other unconditioned and conditioned
punishers over course of persons life
Contrasting Reinforcement and Punishment
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Description
Chapter 5: Extinction Extinction: a behaviour that has been reinforced for a period of time was no longer reinforced and therefore, the behaviour stopped occurring Basic principle of behaviour Extinction occurs when: o A behaviour that has been previously reinforced o No longer results in reinforcing consequences o There, behaviour stops occurring in future One characteristic of extinction process is once behaviour is no longer reinforced, it often increases briefly in frequency, duration, or intensity before it decreases and ultimately stops, called extinction burst Another characteristic: novel behaviours: behaviours that do not typically occur in a particular situation Spontaneous recovery: behaviour may occur again even after it has not occurred for some time o Natural tendency for behaviour to occur again in situations that are similar to those in which it occurred before extinction Two procedural variationstypes of reinforcement: positive and negative reinforcement If behaviour is positively reinforced consequence is applied or added after behaviour If negatively reinforced behaviour results in removal or avoidance of aversive stimulus Extinction means removing reinforce for behaviour Factors that influence extinction: o Reinforcement schedule before extinction: partly determines whether extinct
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