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Chapter 7

Chapter 7

2 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 7 Stimulus Control: Discrimination and Generalization
Operant behaviour is strengthened when it is followed by a reinforcing consequence
Weakened when reinforcing consequence no longer follows behaviour (extinction)
Antecedents- stimulus evens that precede an operant response
Antecedents of behaviour are stimulus events, situations or circumstances that are present when it
occurs or were present before behaviour
When understand antecedents of operant behaviour, have information on circumstance in which
behaviour reinforced and circumstances in which behaviour not reinforced or was punished
Effects of reinforcement, extinction, punishment are situation-specific
Stimulus control- behaviour was more likely to occur when specific antecedent stimulus was
present
Behaviours usually dont occur randomly, they occur in specific situation
Developing Stimulus Control: Stimulus Discrimination Training
Antecedent stimulus that is present when behaviour is reinforced is known as discriminate
stimulus (SD)
Stimulus discrimination training: process of reinforcing a behaviour only when specific antecedent
stimulus (SD)
2 steps involved in stimulus discrimination training:
oWhen SD is present, behaviour is reinforced
oWhen any other antecedent stimuli except SD are present, behaviour is not reinforced.
During discrimination training, any antecedent stimulus that is present when behaviour is
not reinforced is called S-delta (S)
Result of discrimination training, behaviour more likely to occur in future when SD is present but
less likely to occur when S is present
Presence of SD does not cause behaviour to occur
oBut increases likelihood of behaviour in present because it was associated with
reinforcement of behaviour in past
Reinforcement is what causes behaviour to occur when SD present
Result of discrimination training, stimulus control develops over spelling behaviour
Each particular word we hear (and each object/ event we experience) is associated with only one
correct spelling that is reinforced
Incorrect spelling is not reinforced or punished, no longer exists
The Three-Term Contingency
Skinner- stimulus discrimination training involves three-term contingency
oConsequence (reinforce/ punisher) is contingent on occurrence of behaviour only in presence
of specific antecedent stimulus called SD
oInvolves relationship among antecedent, behaviour, consequence of behaviour (ABCs)
Notion used to described three term contingency involving reinforcement:
SDRSR
oSD= discriminative stimulus
oR= response (an instance of behaviour)
oSR= reinforce (reinforcing stimulus)
Punishment:
SD R SP
oSP= punisher (or punishing stimulus)
Generalization
Takes place when behaviour occurs in presence of stimuli that are similar in some ways to SD that
was present during stimulus discrimination training
Generalization gradient:
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Description
Chapter 7 Stimulus Control: Discrimination and Generalization Operant behaviour is strengthened when it is followed by a reinforcing consequence Weakened when reinforcing consequence no longer follows behaviour (extinction) Antecedents- stimulus evens that precede an operant response Antecedents of behaviour are stimulus events, situations or circumstances that are present when it occurs or were present before behaviour When understand antecedents of operant behaviour, have information on circumstance in which behaviour reinforced and circumstances in which behaviour not reinforced or was punished Effects of reinforcement, extinction, punishment are situation-specific Stimulus control- behaviour was more likely to occur when specific antecedent stimulus was present Behaviours usually dont occur randomly, they occur in specific situation Developing Stimulus Control: Stimulus Discrimination Training Antecedent stimulus that is present when behaviour is reinforced is known as discriminate stimulus (SD) Stimulus discrimination training: process of reinforcing a behaviour only when specific antecedent stimulus (SD) 2 steps involved in stimulus discrimination training: o When SD is present, behaviour is reinforced o When any other antecedent stimuli except SD are present, behaviour is not reinforced. During discrimination training, any antecedent stimulus that is present when behaviour is not reinforced is called S-delta (S) Result of discrimination training, behaviour more
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