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PSYB45H3 (1,085)
Chapter 24

Chapter 24

3 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 24: Fear and Anxiety Reduction Procedures
Example: Trisha practices public speaking in front of an increasing number of people while
maintaining relaxation
Defining Fear and Anxiety Problems
Fear composed of operant and respondent behaviour
oTypically, person afraid of particular stimulus or stimulus situation. When stimulus
present, person experiences unpleasant bodily responses (autonomic nervous system
arousal) and engages in escape or avoidance behaviour
Bodily responses are respondent behaviours called anxiety
oAutonomic nervous system arousal involved in anxiety is an establishing operation that
makes it more likely that person will engage in escape or avoidance behaviour at this time
Example: Trisha being in front of class to give talk is CS that elicits CR of autonomic arousal
oThinking about talk and imagining herself giving talk also CSs that elicit CR, operant
behaviour involves dropping classes in which she would have to give talk
Procedures to Reduce Fear and Anxiety
Based on principles of respondent conditioning, operant conditioning, or combination of two
Relaxation training
Strategies that people use to decrease autonomic arousal that they experience as component of fear
and anxiety problems
Person engages in specific relaxation behaviours that result in bodily responses opposite to
autonomic arousal
oBodily responses include tense muscles, rapid heart rate, cold hands, rapid breathing
4 common relaxation training approaches are progressive muscle relaxation, diaphragmatic
breathing, attention-focusing exercises and behavioural relaxation training
Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR)
oPerson systematically tenses and relaxes each of major groups in body
oTensing and relaxing muscles leaves them more relaxed then in initial state
oWhen process is complete, muscles of body should be less tense or more relaxed than they
were at beginning of relaxation exercise
Diaphragmatic breathing
oAka deep breathing or relaxed breathing
oPerson breathes deeply in slow, rhythmic fashion
oAt each inhalation, person uses muscles of diaphragm to pull oxygen deep into lungs
oAnxiety or autonomic arousal most often involves shallow, rapid breathing, diaphragmatic
breathing decreases anxiety by replacing this breathing pattern with more relaxed pattern
Attention-focusing exercises
oProduce relaxation by directing attention to neutral or pleasant stimulus to remove persons
attention from anxiety-producing stimulus
oMediation: person focuses attention on visual stimulus, an auditory stimulus or
kinaesthetic stimulus
oGuided imagery/ visualization exercises: person visualizes or imagines pleasant scenes or
images
oHypnosis: person focuses attention on hypnotic suggestions from therapist or from
audiotype. In hypnotic trance, attention simply focused on therapists words so person is
less aware of external stimuli, including anxiety-provoking thoughts and images
Behavioural relaxation training
oPerson taught to relax each muscle group in body by assuming relaxed postures
o3 components: focus on muscle tension, correct breathing, attention focusing
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Description
Chapter 24: Fear and Anxiety Reduction Procedures Example: Trisha practices public speaking in front of an increasing number of people while maintaining relaxation Defining Fear and Anxiety Problems Fear composed of operant and respondent behaviour o Typically, person afraid of particular stimulus or stimulus situation. When stimulus present, person experiences unpleasant bodily responses (autonomic nervous system arousal) and engages in escape or avoidance behaviour Bodily responses are respondent behaviours called anxiety o Autonomic nervous system arousal involved in anxiety is an establishing operation that makes it more likely that person will engage in escape or avoidance behaviour at this time Example: Trisha being in front of class to give talk is CS that elicits CR of autonomic arousal o Thinking about talk and imagining herself giving talk also CSs that elicit CR, operant behaviour involves dropping classes in which she would have to give talk Procedures to Reduce Fear and Anxiety Based on principles of respondent conditioning, operant conditioning, or combination of two Relaxation training Strategies that people use to decrease autonomic arousal that they experience as component of fear and anxiety problems Person engages in specific relaxation behaviours that result in bodily responses opposite to autonomic arousal o Bodily responses include tense muscles, rapid heart rate, cold hands, rapid breathing 4 common relaxation training approaches are progressive muscle relaxation, diaphragmatic breathing, attention-focusing exercises and behavioural relaxation training Progressive muscle relaxation (P
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