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Chapter 6

PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Reinforcement, Intellectual Disability, Bee Sting

Course Code
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 6 Punishment
Punishment has three parts:
1. A particular behaviour occurs
2. A consequence immediately follows the behaviour
3. As a result, the behaviour is less likely to occur again in the future(decreases) and after that
only we can say that a particular consequence is punishing
A punisher (an aversive stimulus): is a consequence that makes a particular behaviour less likely to occur
in the future
For example, Juan always hits his sisters and then receives spanking and scolding from his mother and
he stops hitting but then continues to hit in the future, therefore this is not considered punishment
since the behaviour only stops at the time of spanking and scolding but continues to occur in the future
Positive Punishment
Negative Punishment
The occurrence of a behaviour
The occurrence of a behaviour
Is followed by the presentation of an aversive
Is followed by the removal of a reinforcing
As a result, the behaviour is less likely to occur
in the future
As a result, the behaviour is less likely to occur in
the future
An example of a positive punishment would be the presentation of an electric shock (aversive stimulus)
every time a child with intellectual disabilities hit themselves
*Difference between extinction and punishment... both decrease a behaviour, however, with extinction
it usually takes longer for the behaviour to decrease and extinction burst usually occurs where the
behaviour increases briefly before it decreases. With punishment, the decrease in behaviour is
immediate and there is no extinction burst.
Examples of negative punishment are time-out positive reinforcement and response cost
*difference between extinction and negative punishment...extinction involves the withholding of the
behaviour that was maintaining the behaviour while negative punishment involves removing or
withdrawing the positive reinfocrer after the behaviour. For example a child interrupts his parents and
the behaviour is reinforced by his parents. Extinction would be that the parents stop giving him
attention while negative punishment would involve the loss of some other reinforce e.g allowance
Response cost is a negative punishment procedure used most often by researchers to decrease late
arrivals for supper by youths, when youths arrived late they lost some of the points they had earned and
as a result late arrivals decreased until the youths always showed up on time
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