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PSYB45H3 (1,085)
Chapter 19

Chapter 19

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 19
Promoting Generalization
Programming for generalization increases the likelihood that the
behavior change will occur in all relevant situations or circumstances
in the persons life
Defining Generalization
During discrimination training, the occurrence of a behavior is
reinforced only in the presence of a certain stimulus (discriminative
stimulus - SD)
Generalization is defined as the occurrence of the behavior in the
presence of stimuli that are similar in some way to the SD that was
present during the training
The occurrence of behavior in the presence of all relevant stimuli
outside the training situation
Training is not successful until the behavior generalizes to similar
situations
Strategies for Promoting Generalization of Behavior Change
Reinforcing occurrences of generalization
oReinforce the behavior when generalization occurs reinforce
the behavior when it occurs outside the training situation in the
presence of relevant situation
oIn this way, all relevant stimuli develop stimulus control over
the behavior
oOne drawback to this strategy is that it is not always possible to
provide reinforcement for the behavior outside the training
session
oIf you cannot reinforce instances of generalization, you must use
other strategies to promote generalization
Training skills that contact natural contingencies of reinforcement
oIf you cannot provide reinforcement for behavior in relevant
situations outside the training situation, it is important for
natural reinforcers to be present
oAlthough you should strive to teach skills that will contact
natural contingencies of reinforcement, this is not always
possible
Modifying natural contingencies of reinforcement and punishment
oDesirable behaviors will occur in relevant situations outside the
training situation if the behavior is reinforced in those
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Description
Chapter 19 Promoting Generalization • Programming for generalization increases the likelihood that the behavior change will occur in all relevant situations or circumstances in the person’s life Defining Generalization • During discrimination training, the occurrence of a behavior is reinforced only in the presence of a certain stimulus (discriminative stimulus - S ) • Generalization is defined as the occurrence of the behavior in the presence of stimuli that are similar in some way to the S that was present during the training • The occurrence of behavior in the presence of all relevant stimuli outside the training situation • Training is not successful until the behavior generalizes to similar situations Strategies for Promoting Generalization of Behavior Change • Reinforcing occurrences of generalization o Reinforce the behavior when generalization occurs – reinforce the behavior when it occurs outside the training situation in the presence of relevant situation o In this way, all relevant stimuli develop stimulus control over the behavior o One drawback to this strategy is that it is not always possible to provide reinforcement for the behavior outside the training session o If you cannot reinforce instances of generalization, you must use other strategies to promote generalization • Training skills that contact natural contingencies of reinforcement o If you cannot provide reinforcement for behavior in relevant situations outside the training situation, it is important for natural reinforcers to be present o Although you should strive to teach skills that will contact natural contingencies of reinforcement, this is not always possible • Modifying natural contingencies of reinforcement and punishment o Desirable behaviors will occur in relevant situations outside the training situation if the behavior is reinforced in those www.notesolution.com situations (and if punishment contingencies are not operating in those situations) o When the trainer is not able to reinforce occurrences of generalization and there are no existing natural contingencies of reinforcement, generalization may be prompted by modifying the contingencies of reinforcement in the relevant situations * The first three generalization strategies described focus on reinforcing the behavior outside the training situation * The next three focus on arranging appropriate stimulus situations and response variations during training • Incorporating a variety of relevant stimulus situations in training o Incorporate many of the relevant situations in training o Stimulus exemplars – if the learner is trained to respond correctly to a range of relevant stimulus situations (stimulus exemplars), the behavior is more likely to generalize to all relevant stimulus situations o General case programming – using multiple training examples (stimulus exemplars) that sample the range of relevant stimulus situations and response variations • Incorporating common stimuli o Incorporate stimuli from the generalization environment (target situation) into the training situation o If the training and generalization situations have some features or stimuli in common, generalization is more likely to occur o Some aspect of the target situation (a physical or social stimulus) is used in training
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