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Chapter 20

Chapter 20

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 20
Self-Management
Self-management when a person uses behavior modification
procedures to change his or her own behavior
Defining Self-Management Problems
(1) People exhibit behavioral deficits they fail to engage in desirable
behaviors
The behaviors are desirable because they will have a positive impact on
the peoples lives in the future
Ex. Studying, exercise etc.
However, the behavior does not occur because it is not reinforced
immediately when it occurs or because competing behavior that is
immediately reinforced interferes with its occurrence
Because the positive outcome is in the future, it does not exert an
influence on the occurrence of the desirable behavior at present
The goal of self-management strategies is to increase the current level
of the deficit behavior so that the positive outcome can be achieved for
the person in the future
(2) Another type of self-management problem is an excess of an
undesirable behavior
The behavior is undesirable because it will have a negative impact on
the persons life in the future
Ex. Smoking, overeating etc.
The undesirable behavior continues because it is immediately
reinforced when it occurs or because the alternative behaviors are not
present to complete with its occurrence
Because the negative outcome is in the future, it does not influence the
occurrence of the undesirable behavior in the present
The goal is self-management is to decrease or eliminate the behavioral
excess so that the negative outcome does not occur in the future
*Table pg.461
Defining Self-Management
Self-management occurs when a person engages in behavior at one
time to control the occurrence of another behavior (target behavior) at
a later time
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Involves a controlling behavior and a controlled behavior the person
engages in the controlling behavior to influence the future
occurrence of the controlled behavior
The controlling behavior involves implementing self-management
strategies in which the antecedents and consequences of the target
behavior or alternative behaviors are modified; these strategies make
the controlled behavior
Types of Self-Management Strategies
Goal-setting and self-monitoring
oGoal-setting writing down the criterion level of the target
behavior and the time frame for the occurrence of the behavior
oAlthough goal-setting by itself is not always an effective self-
management strategy, it is effective when implemented with
self-monitoring and other self-management strategies
oSet goals that are achievable more likely to be successful in
exhibiting the desired level of the behavior
oAchieving the goal is particularly important early in a self-
management program because it is often the criterion for a
reinforcement contingency to be implemented, and early
reinforcement increase the likelihood that the person will
persevere in the program
oGoal achievement is a conditioned reinforcer for many people or
may become a conditioned reinforcer if other reinforcers are
delivered when the person achieves the goal
oGoal-setting is implemented most often with self-monitoring
oSelf-monitoring record each instance of the target behavior
as it occurs; this allows you to evaluate progress toward the goal
oAlso, self-monitoring often is re-active; that is, the act of self-
monitoring may result in beneficial change in the target
behavior that is being recorded
Antecedent manipulations
oAntecedent manipulations often are used by people in self-
management programs to influence their own behavior
oIn an antecedent manipulation, you modify the environment in
some way before the target behavior occurs to influence the
future occurrence of the target behavior
oChapter 16 6 types of antecedent manipulations
oAll self-management procedures involve antecedent
manipulations because the person engages in some controlling
behaviors in advance of the target behavior to be controlled
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Description
Chapter 20 Self-Management Self-management when a person uses behavior modification procedures to change his or her own behavior Defining Self-Management Problems (1) People exhibit behavioral deficits they fail to engage in desirable behaviors The behaviors are desirable because they will have a positive impact on the peoples lives in the future Ex. Studying, exercise etc. However, the behavior does not occur because it is not reinforced immediately when it occurs or because competing behavior that is immediately reinforced interferes with its occurrence Because the positive outcome is in the future, it does not exert an influence on the occurrence of the desirable behavior at present The goal of self-management strategies is to increase the current level of the deficit behavior so that the positive outcome can be achieved for the person in the future (2) Another type of self-management problem is an excess of an undesirable behavior The behavior is undesirable because it will have a negative impact on the persons life in the future Ex. Smoking, overeating etc. The undesirable behavior continues because it is immediately reinforced when it occurs or because the alternative behaviors are not present to complete with its occurrence Because the negative outcome is in the future, it does not influence the occurrence of the undesirable behavior in the present The goal is self-management is to decrease or eliminate the behavioral excess so that the negative outcome does not occur in the future *Table pg.461 Defining Self-Management Self-management occurs when a person engages in behavior at one time to control the occurrence of another behavior (target behavior) at a later time www.notesolution.com
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