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Chapter 15

Chapter 15 txtbook notes

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 15: Differential Reinforcement
Involves applying reinforcement & extinction to increase the desirable target
behaviour or decrease undesirable behaviour
3 types: differential reinforcement of alternative behaviour , differential
reinforcement of other behaviour & differential reinforcement of low rates of
responding
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviour (DRA)
Used to increase the frequency of desirable behaviour & to decrease the frequency of
undesirable behaviours involves the combining 2 principles: reinforcement for a
desirable behaviour & extinction of undesirable behaviour at the same time
Getting Mrs. Williams to Be Positive
Mrs. Williams in nursing home always complaining to nurse & it gotten worsen
over time initially she was nice, & polite
Used DRA: Nurse were instructed to do 3 things: 1
st say something positive when
they see her 2nd if she saying something positive back pay attention to her 3rd
if she say something negative dont pay attention to her
o in time complaining behaviour decreased & positive behaviour increased
DRA by decreasing the interfering behaviour through extinction , it creates
opportunity for the desirable behaviour to occur & be reinforced
When to Use DRA
To determine whether DRA is appropriate answer 3 question:
oDo you want to increase the rate of desirable behaviour? DRA is for
strengthening a desirable behaviour
o Is the behaviour already occurring at least occasionally? The desirable behaviour
must occur at least occasionally in order for DRA to work
but if using procedure such as shaping or prompting are used initially to
evoke the behaviour then DRA may be used to strengthen & maintain the
behaviour
oDo you have access to a reinforcer that you can deliver after the occurrence of the
behaviour? Must be able to identify a reinforcer that you can use each time
Cannot identify a reinforcer or have no control over a reinforcer cannot use
DRA
How to Use DRA Steps:
1.Define the Desirable Behaviour must clearly identify & define (behavioural
definition) the desirable behaviour that is to be increased w/ DRA - to ensure that
correct behaviour is reinforced & to record it to determine if treatment is successful
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2.Define the Undesirable Behaviour also clearly define the undesirable
behaviours that is to be decreased w/ DRA to ensure that undesirable behaviour is
not reinforced & to record it to determine if the behaviour decreased after treatment
3.Identify the Reinforcer- reinforcer may be different for different people; thus,
important to determine a reinforcer specific to the person you are working w/
Can you a reinforcer that is currently maintaining the undesirable behaviour since
you know this reinforcer is already effective e.g. w/ Mrs. Williams it was nurses
attention
Another way- observe the person & note which activities/ interests they purse
oe.g. Luke, a juvenile delinquent played video games often, so used that as
reinforcer to get him to finish his homework using Premack Principle
Another way ask them questions such as what do they enjoy doing & also could ask
parents or teachers for info - Some researchers developed questionnaire to help them
identify reinforces
Another option try out a variety of different stimuli & see which works present
each of the potential reinforcers to the person & record which one they approach
Another way- to make each potential reinforcer contingent on an operant response 
if the frequency or duration of the response increases when stimulus is contingent on
response it demonstrated that the stimulus is a reinforcer
oE.g. Wacke- press switch to activate diff music or games if press one switch &
listen to music than others indication music is an reinforcer
4.Reinforce the Desirable Behaviour Immediately & Consistently important to
reinforce behaviour immediately after it occurs (a delay will make DRA less effective
) & reinforce it every time it occurs Follow Continuous schedule (at least
inintally) is more likely to work
5.Eliminate Reinforcement for the Undesirable Behaviours must identify &
eliminate the reinforcement for undesirable behaviours for DRA to be effective Or
at least minimize the reinforcement in contrast w/ reinforcement of desirable
behaviour
the desirable & undesirable behaviours are concurrent operants : 2 behaviours that
are maintained by concurrent schedules of reinforcement - the behaviour that
results in greater reinforcement will increase relative to the other behaviours
6.Use Intermittent Reinforcement to Maintain the Target Behaviour in early
stages of DRA, continuous reinforcement for desirable behaviour is used but when it
behaviour occurs consistently & undesirable one occur rarely, start to use
intermittent schedule of reinforcement:
Which is used to maintain behaviour over time by making it more resistant to
extinction
7.Program for Generalization means the target behaviour should occur outside
the training situation in ALL RELEVENT stimulus STIUTATION done by
differentially reinforcing in many relevant situation & by many relevant people as
possible
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Description
Chapter 15: Differential Reinforcement Involves applying reinforcement & extinction to increase the desirable target behaviour or decrease undesirable behaviour 3 types: differential reinforcement of alternative behaviour , differential reinforcement of other behaviour & differential reinforcement of low rates of responding Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviour (DRA) Used to increase the frequency of desirable behaviour & to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviours involves the combining 2 principles: reinforcement for a desirable behaviour & extinction of undesirable behaviour at the same time Getting Mrs. Williams to Be Positive Mrs. Williams in nursing home always complaining to nurse & it gotten worsen over time initially she was nice, & polite Used DRA: Nurse were instructed to do 3 things:1say something positive when nd rd they see her 2 if she saying something positive back pay attention to her 3 if she say something negative dont pay attention to her o in time complaining behaviour decreased & positive behaviour increased DRA by decreasing the interfering behaviour through extinction , it creates opportunity for the desirable behaviour to occur & be reinforced When to Use DRA To determine whether DRA is appropriat e answer 3 question: o Do you want to increase the rate of desirable behaviour? DRA is for strengthening a desirable behaviour o Is the behaviour already occurring at least occasionally? The desirable behaviour must occur at least occasionally in order for DRA to work but if using procedure such as shaping or prompting are used initially to evoke the behaviou r then DRA may be used to strengthen & maintain the behaviour o Do you have access to a reinforcer that you can deliver after the occurrence of the behaviour? Must be able to identify a reinforcer that you can use each time Cannot identify a reinforcer or have no control over a reinfo rcearnnot use DRA How to Use DRA Steps: 1. Define the Desirable Behaviour must clearly identify & define (behavioural definition) the desirable behaviour that is to be increased w DRA - to ensure that correct behaviour is reinforced & to record it to determine if treatment is successful www.notesolution.com
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