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Chapter 18

Chapter 18 txtbook notes

9 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 18: Positive Punishment Procedures & the Ethics of Punishment
Positive punishment: aversive events are applied contingent on the occurrence of a
problem behaviour use of it is controversial
oFunctional non-aversive treatment should always be used before considering
punishment & reinforcement should always be used in conjunction w/ punishment
2 categories of aversive events used in punishment: application of aversive activities
& application of aversive stimulation
Application of Aversive Activities
Allison draw in the wall due to anger father made hear clean up the walls &
watched her do it w/out talking to her but using physical guidance if needed less
likely to draw on walls again
Simon w/ bed wetting have to get inside the cover, then get up & stand in front
of washroom before going to back to sleep made bed-wetting less
Both of case above- contingent on the problem behaviour , made to engage in an
aversive activity result: problem behaviour was less likely to occur in the future
oAversive activity - low-probability behaviour the person typically wouldnt choose to
engage in
This form of positive punishment is based on the Premack Principle requirement
to engage in low-probability behaviour (aversive activities) is made contingent on the
occurrence of high-probability behaviour (problem behaviour) the high-probability
behaviour will decrease
Aversive activity is a behaviour that can be punisher for another behaviour as
result: change agent often has to use physical guidance to get the client to engage in
aversive activity contingent on the problem behaviour
oE.g. w/ Allison parent had to use physical guidance for her to finish cleaning the
walls
www.notesolution.com
Change agent instructs the client to engage in the aversive activity immediately
contingent on the problem behaviour but if client doesnt do it then change agent
uses physical guidance
oEventually, client should do the aversive activities upon command to avoid physical
guidance
Various types of positive punishment use different types of aversive activity:
Overcorrection
A procedure developed by Foxx & Azrin to decrease aggressive & disruptive
behaviours exhibited by people w/ mental retardation
oClient is required to engage in an effortful behaviour for an extended period
contingent on each instances of the problem behaviour
2 forms of this: Positive practice & Restitution
Positive Practice: client has to engage in correct forms of relevant behaviour
contingent on an instance of the problem behaviour w/ physical guidance if
necessary for an extended period (5-15min) OR until correct behaviour has been
repeated a number of times
oWas used w/ Simon performed the correct behaviour of getting out of bed & going
to washroom ten times when he wet his bed (problem behaviour)
oE.g.: student rushing through assignment & making lots of spelling error was made
to correct
Was made to correct all the mistakes she made
Lots of research on effectiveness of positive practice primarily w/ mental
retardation
Restitution: contingent on each instance of the problem behaviour, the client must
correct the environmental effects of the problem behaviour & restore the
environment to a condition better than that before the problem behaviour
www.notesolution.com
oovercorrects the environment effects of the problem behaviour w/ Allison made
to clean the wall she made messy & also, another wall correction went beyond
damage
oe.g. student in outburst flips desk made to put the desk properly & straighten out
all the other desks in the classroom
Lots of research on effectiveness of restitution on mental retardation such as
toilet training
Contingent Exercise
Is another positive punishment involving application of aversive activities client is
made to engage in some form of physical exercise contingent on an instance of the
problem behaviour
oDiffers from overcorrection in terms of the aversive activity in contingent exercise,
activity involves physical exercise UNRELATED to the problem behaviour
Physical activity must be something that the client is capable of carrying out
w/out harm again w/ punishment procedure use physical guidance if
necessary
E.g.: Johnny w/ his swearing every time he swore, he was made to clean the
windows swearing behaviour went down
Luce & Colleague decreased aggressive behaviour& threats in classroom w/
developmental delay children occurrence of problem behaviour, were made to
stand up &sit down on the floor 10 times in a row problem behaviour decreased
oUsed verbal prompt & physical guidance when necessary
Guided Compliance
Person is engaging in problem behaviour in compliance situation guided
compliance can be used as positive punishment to decrease problem behaviour
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 18: Positive Punishment Procedures & the Ethics of Punishment Positive punishment: aversive events are applied contingent on the occurrence of a problem behaviour use of it is controversial oFunctional non-aversive treatment should always be used before considering punishment & reinforcement should always be used in conjunction w punishment 2 categories of aversive events used in punishment: application of aversive activities & application of aversive stimulation Application of Aversive Activities Allison draw in the wall due to anger father made hear clean up the walls & watched her do it wout talking to her but using physical guidance if ne edleds likely to draw on walls again Simon w bed wettin g have to get inside the cover, then get up & stand in front of washroom before going to back to sl eep ade bed-wetting less Both of case above- contingent on the problem behaviour , made to engage in an aversive activit result: problem behaviour was less likely to occur in the future oAversive activity - low-probability behaviour the person typically wouldnt choose to engage in This form of positive punishment is based on the Premack Principle requirement to engage in low-probability behaviour (aversive activities) is made contingent on the occurrence of high-probability behaviour (problem behav ioutr)e high-probability behaviour will decrease Aversive activity is a behaviour that can be punisher for another beha vosur result: change agent often has to use physical guidance to get the client to engage in aversive activity contingent on the problem behaviour oE.g. w Allison parent had to use physical guidance for her to finish cleaning the walls www.notesolution.com
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