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Chapter 24

Chapter 24 txtbook notes

9 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 24: Fear & Anxiety Reduction Procedures
Its procedure is based on principles of operant & respondent conditioning
Examples: Overcoming Trishas Fear of Public Speaking
has fear of giving presentation & experienced anxiety when thinking about it &
giving in the presentation thus; Dropped courses that have public presentation as
component
Gonzalez taught relaxation exercise when she started to feel anxiety
oPractice this exercise when she gave talk to him when she could give speech in
the office w/ little anxiety , moved to give speech to a friend in empty classroom
soon as she accomplish doing this w/ minimal anxiety , moved to give speech to
2 friends
This goes on until empty classroom is filled w/ lot more friends & could give
the speech w/ minimal anxiety
Examples: Overcoming Allisons Fear of Spider
Had a intense fear of spider to extreme will climb out of window to escape from
spider due to anxiety
Dr.Wright - 1st assess her fear level by looking at her fear rating as she approached
(distance) jar that has a spider in it
oTaught her relaxation training used this training as she used to get closer to
the jar similar to Trisha gradual progression until Allison got fully close to
spider to kill it herself
Defining Fear & Anxiety Problem
Important to have operational definition of the behaviour involved in this
Fear: composed of both operant & respondent behaviour (to a particular stimulus/
stimulus situation)
oStimulus is present the person experiences unpleasant body respondent in the
form ANS arousal & engage in escape or avoidance behaviour
oBody responses are RESPONDENT BEHAVIOUR -ANXIETY
www.notesolution.com
ANS arousal in anxiety works as establishing operation that increase
probability that person will engage in escape or avoidance behaviour
Case w/ Allison
Respondent behaviour : CS is the presence of spider that elicits a CR of ANS arousal
(involves anxiety)
Operant behaviour is the screaming & running away from spider which is negatively
reinforced by removal or escape from stimulus (spider) & reduction in anxiety
Case w/ Trisha
Respondent behaviour: CS is talking in front of class (or even overt behaviour such
as thinking about it) elicits a CR of ANS arousal
Operant behaviour: dropping out class which is reinforced by elimination of anxiety
(including elevating overt behaviour that also cause anxiety
In Summary:
Most of anxiety & fear problem is characterized by COMBINATION of respondent
(CS elicits CR of ANS arousal) & operant (avoidance or escape reinforced by
reduction in anxiety) behaviour
Most treatment for these involved address this combination
Often it is not known how fear developed through respondent conditioning dont
know how CS became conditioned
oIn many case cannot remember a past event that may have conditioned the fear
stimulus BUT DONT need to know this to treat a client
oIts IMPORTANT to IDENTIFY all stimuli that functions as CS & elicits CR fear
response
One other issue: sometime a problem that appear to be fear anxiety is simply an
operant behaviour w/out no respondent behaviour
oE.g. child crying cause didnt want to go to school could be phobia or just be
operant behaviour that is positively reinforced by attention
Thus, IMPORTANT to conduct FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT of the
supposed fear behaviour to determine what function it serve for the client
(child)
www.notesolution.com
Procedure to Reduce Fear & Anxiety
There are number procedures which are based on principles of respondent condition,
operant conditioning or a combination of both
Relaxation Training
Are used to decrease the ANS arousal that they experience as a component of fear &
anxiety problems engages in specific relaxation behaviours that result in the
bodily responses opposite of ANS arousal
oE.g. in ANS arousal- tense muscle, rapid heart rate, cold hands, rapid breathing
while in relaxation exercise produce decrease in muscle tension, heart rate and
breathing rate etc.
Once the person produce these bodily responses they reported a reduction in anxiety
There are four common relaxation training approaches: progressive muscle
relaxation, diaphragmatic breathing, attention-focusing exercise and behaviour
relaxation training
Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR)
1st described Edmund Jacobson in this strategy : Person systematically tenses &
relaxes each of the major muscle groups in the body this leaves them more relaxed
than in their initial state
To use PMR 1st learn how to tense & relax each of major muscles
oCan learn this from therapist, from listening to an audiotape of the procedure or
from reading a description
After that can begin their relaxation procedure 1st have get into a comfortable
position in comfortable chair & should be conducted in quiet room w/out major
distraction
o2nd : close eyes & tenses and relaxes each muscle (e.g. dominant arm) tense for
5 sec & abruptly releases the tension thus, allowing the client to feel the
contrast in each of muscle groups
oShould focus on the decreased level of tension in the muscle for 5-10 sec each
oRepeat this until all muscle groups have been tensed & relaxed at the end the
muscles should be less tenses & more relaxed than its initial state
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 24: Fear & Anxiety Reduction Procedures Its procedure is based on principles of operant & respondent conditioning Examples: Overcoming Trishas Fear of Public Speaking has fear of giving presentation & experienced anxiety when thinking about it & giving in the presentation thus; Dropped courses that have public presentation as component Gonzalez taught relaxation exercise when she started to feel anxiety o Practice this exercise when she gave talk to himwhen she could give speech in the office w little anxiety , moved to give speech to a friend in empty classroom soon as she accomplish doing this w minimal anxiety , moved to give speech to 2 friends This goes on until empty classroom is filled w lot more friends & could give the speech w minimal anxiety Examples: Overcoming Allisons Fear of Spider Had a intense fear of spidr to extreme will climb out of window to escape from spider due to anxiety Dr.Wright - 1 assess her fear level by looking at her fear rating as she approached (distance) jar that has a spider in it o Taught her relaxation training used this training as she used to get closer to the jar similar to Trisha gradual progression until Allison got fully close to spider to kill it herself Defining Fear & Anxiety Problem Important to have operational definition of the behaviour involved in this Fear: composed of both operant & respondent behaviour (to a particular stimulus stimulus situation) o Stimulus is present the person experiences unpleasant body respondent in the form ANS arousal & engage in escape or avoidance behaviour o Body responses are RESPONDENT BEHAVIOUR -ANXIETY www.notesolution.com
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