Eliminate reinforcement for the undesirable behaviours if the reinforcer for undesirable behaviours cannot be
eliminated completely, it at least must be minimized so that the contrast between the reinforcement of the
desirable and undesirable behaviours is maximized
Use intermittent reinforcement to maintain the target behaviour continuous reinforcement for the desirable
behaviour is used in the early stages of DRA; however, once the desirable behaviour is occurring
consistently and the undesirable behaviours occur rarely, if at all, you should start to thin the schedule of
reinforcement and reinforce the desirable behaviour intermittently
Program for generalization generalization means that the target behaviour should occur outside the training
situation in all relevant stimulus situations
Using Differentiated Negative Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviours (DNRA).
DNRA has been used in a variety of studies to decrease problem behaviours that are maintained by negative
reinforcement and to increase appropriate behaviours to replace the problem behaviours.
DRNA- a procedure for decreasing a problem behaviour by reinforcing a functionally equivalent alternative
behaviour (a competing behaviour) to replace the problem behaviour
A couple of variations of DNRA exist in which different types of alternative behaviour are reinforced to replace
the problem behaviour:
Differential reinforcement of an incompatible behaviour (DRI) - a type of DRA behaviour in which a
physically incompatible behaviour is reinforced to replace the problem behaviour.
Ex. If the problem behaviour is head slapping, in which individuals slap themselves on the side of
their heads, any alternative behaviour involving the use of hands would be an incompatible
Playing with toys with their hands would be an example of incompatible behaviours that could be
reinforced to replace the head slapping in a DRI procedure; whenever the child is about to slap its
head, if it is holding a toy (which is usually hard), it would be less likely to do so because it would
Differential reinforcement of communication (DRC)- it is called functional communication training;
a type of DRA procedure in which a communication response is reinforced to replace the problem
Ex. an individual with a problem behaviour reinforced by attention would learn to ask for
Ex. An individual with a problem behaviour reinforced by escape from a particular situation (i.e.
cleaning or homework) would learn to ask for a break from the situation.
This communication response is more efficient that the problem behaviour,
communications is used as an alternative behaviour.