PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Heart Rate

3 views2 pages
22 Jun 2016

For unlimited access to Textbook Notes, a Class+ subscription is required.

Chapter 7 – Getting a New Behaviour to Occur with Shaping
Shaping/ Method of Successive Approximations: developing new operant behaviours by reinforcing that
behaviour and extinction of earlier (undesired) approximations of that behaviour until new behaviour occurs;
establishing a behaviour that never happened before
Example: incorporating exercising into your life; language acquisition
5 dimensions of shaping:
1. Topography: the specific spatial movements of behaviour; physical movements involved (E.g. movement
of walking strides; writing; speaking)
2. Frequency: how often the behaviour occurs (e.g. how often do you jog)
3. Duration length of time the behaviour lasts (e.g. how long do you exercise)
4. Latency: i.e. reaction time; time b/w stimulus occurrence and the behaviour evoked by it
5. Intensity: amount of energy expended on behaviour (e.g. learning how strong the handshake should be)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Shaping
1. Specifying the Final Target Behaviour
a. Finding the clear, ultimate goal in achieving the behaviour
b. More specific, or precise, increases the changes for consistent reinforcement of successive
approximations of that behaviour
c. Target should list characteristics of the 5 dimensions
2. Choosing the Starting Behaviour
a. Starting behaviour should be occurring often enough to be reinforced within a time period
b. Know where you are going from starting behaviour to final target
3. Choosing the Shaping Steps
a. Outlining successive approximations to attempt to the final target behaviour
b. No ideal way of designing the steps b/c everyone is different; there can be guidelines but should be
flexible enough to change the steps if progressing too fast/slow
4. Pace the Movements through the Shaping Steps
a. Do not reinforce too many times at a step b/c it is too slow to progress to final target
b. If too far into the steps, take a step back
c. Reinforce an approximation (step) several times before going into the next step
find more resources at
find more resources at
Unlock document

This preview shows half of the first page of the document.
Unlock all 2 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class