PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Equivalence Class, Reinforcement, Classical Conditioning

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22 Jun 2016
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Chapter 9 – Responding at the Right Time and Place: Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization
Learning to Respond at the Right Time and Place
Behaviours are only valuable if performed at the right time and place, otherwise it is useless
Behaviour can be analyzed through three events: Antecedent; Behavioural; Consequence
oAntecedent stimulus: a stimulus that may exert control/trigger/influence over your behaviour
Stimulus control: degree of which a stimulus can influence/control your behaviour
oGood stimulus control: empty water cup will influence you to refill your water
We learn to refrain from performing some behaviours because we know they will not be reinforced
Types of Controlling Stimuli: S s and SΔs
S : discriminative stimulus – a stimulus which can reinforce a response
oE.g. cup with water is an S for the response of drinking b/c there is water inside
SΔ: stimulus delta – a stimulus that does not reinforce the response
oE.g. cup with no water is an SΔ for the response of drinking b/c there is no water inside
A stimulus can be both or S depending on the response
Stimulus Discrimination
Stimulus discrimination training: a procedure of reinforcing a response when S is present. If SΔ is present, then
it is a procedure to extinguish that behaviour
Effects of stimulus discrimination training:
oGood stimulus control: stimulus is highly correlation to a certain behaviour
oStimulus discrimination: a response occurs to an S , not SΔ
Stimulus Generalization: a person’s responds the same way to two or more different stimuli, rather than discriminating
b/w two different stimulus. (E.g. saying “Hi” to everyone)
Unlearned stimulus generalization due to strong physical similarity
More physically similar a stimulus is, then we are more likely to respond the same way b/c we do not need to re-
learn anything that is slightly different; more efficient in learning
E.g. you say “Dog” to two different breeds of dogs – able to generalize the word
Learned Stimulus Generalization Involving Limited Physical Similarity
Many items that are in the same category may not look typical
Stimulus class: not generalizing a stimulus because a person did not entirely learn a concept of that stimulus
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