PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Tantrum, Reinforcement

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22 Jun 2016

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Chapter 6 – Decreasing Behaviour with Operant Extinction
Operant Extinction
Respondent extinction: decreasing a conditioned response b/c the CS is presented w/o the US
Operant Extinction: decreasing operant response b/c response/behaviour is no longer reinforced
oPerson is less likely to do same thing b/c there is no reinforcer
Other ways of decreasing behaviour:
oResponse-cost punishment: taking away a reinforcer every time undesired behaviour is evoked
oForgetting: behaviour is weakened b/c of forgetfulness
Factors Influencing Effectiveness of Operant Extinction
1. Control of Reinforcers for the Target Behaviour
a. Everyone must cooperate to work together to decrease the behaviour; if one person is following the
behavioural program to decrease the behaviour while someone else is not, then the undesired
behaviour will relapse
2. Combining Extinction with Positive Reinforcement for Alternative Behaviour
a. Praising a child for polite tone while ignoring their rude/impolite tone
b. Operant extinction most effective with positive reinforcement
c. Short intervals of reinforcement for good behaviour, then gradually increase intervals
3. Setting of when the Extinction Occurred
a. Do extinction at a setting where it’s more possible (e.g. not at a public place where child will throw
b. Choose a setting that maximize the influence of extinction/alternative reinforcers
c. Maximize the changes of behaviour modifier persisting
4. Instructions/Rules
a. Providing clear rules will speed up process of eliminating behaviour
5. Schedule of Reinforcement Before Extinction is Carried Out
a. Intermittent Reinforcement: only reinforcing something occasionally; slow at extinguishing behaviour
b. Continuous reinforcement: reinforcing a response each and every time a specific behaviour occurs;
faster at extinguishing behaviour
c. Slow at extinguishing behaviour is resistant to extinction
6. Behaviour Being Extinguished May get Worse First
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