PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Reinforcement, Bruxism, Nociceptor

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22 Jun 2016
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Chapter 13 – Decreasing Behaviour with Punishment
Principle of Punishment
Punisher: immediate consequence of a specific behaviour which causes it to decrease its frequency (aka
aversive stimuli)
Principle of punishment: if someone does an undesirable behaviour which is followed by a punisher, the person
is less likely to do the same thing next time
Punishment is NOT:
oA form of vengeance/retribution/moral sanction
oNot used to deter others from engaging in target behaviour
oPunishment (in behavioural sense) occurs IMMEDIATELY following the undesirable behaviour
Punishment (behaviour) – an application of technique of an immediate consequence following a specific
behaviour that has the effect of decreasing that behaviour
Types of Punishers
1. Physical Punisher
a. Nociceptors are receptors all over your body that activate pain
b. Unconditioned punishers b/c we feel pain as aversive stimuli without learning
2. Reprimand
a. Negative verbal stimulus following an undesirable behaviour right away – usually paired with
threatening stare/firm grasp/ loud voice (unconditioned aversive stimuli) for higher effectiveness
b. It is a conditioned response (like its counterpart, praising)
3. Timeout
a. Individual loses the opportunity to earn reinforcers
b. Exclusionary timeout – removing the individual briefly from the reinforcing situation; should be no more
than 4-5 minutes as it is effective
c. Nonexclusionary timeout – give/remove a stimuli associated with less reinforcement when learner is
engaging poor behaviour (e.g. ribbon from student was removed, so child cannot participate in
classroom activities; when child has ribbon, then children can participate)
4. Response Cost
a. Removing an amount of reinforcer following an undesirable behaviour
b. E.g. removal of tokens; fines; sticker removal
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