PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Ice Cream Van, Nicotine, Reinforcement

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22 Jun 2016
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Chapter 5 – Increasing Behaviour with Conditioned Reinforcement
Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcers
Unconditioned reinforcers – naturally/biological reinforcers that weren’t systematically learned or conditioned
(e.g. water, food, sex, happiness)
Conditioned/secondary/learned reinforcers – reinforcers that weren’t originally reinforcing, but they become
reinforcers b/c it was paired with other reinforcers (e.g. praise, favorite show, games, music)
Back up reinforcers – deliberately associating a stimulus with other conditioned reinforcers, so that the stimulus
becomes a conditioned reinforcer. The other reinforcers are the backup reinforcers
oE.g. training your dog to sit when you say “sit” while giving them a treat when they actually sit
“sit” (the goal) = conditioned reinforcer; treat (unconditioned reinforcer) = backup reinforcer
To compliment = conditioned reinforcer; giving yourself points (conditioned reinforcer) = backup
reinforcer
oYou use backup reinforcer while associating with a reinforcer already learned/or natural to reinforce a
behaviour
With addictive drugs, conditioned reinforcers are the smell/taste of the substance or the sight of it
Tokens as Reinforcers
Tokens: conditioned reinforcers to be exchanged for backup reinforcers
Token Economy: clients can earn tokens for specific behaviour and then exchange tokens for their backup
reinforcers
Advantage: help deliver immediate satisfaction/reinforcement than backup reinforcers. Helps bridge the gap of
behaviour and delayed reinforcements
Conditioned punishment: specific behaviour evoked a punishment (e.g. Stop that!) , and that punishment
becomes conditioned
Simple vs. Generalized Conditioned Reinforcers
Conditioned reinforcer + single backup reinforcer = simple conditioned reinforcer
oMore specific and may not apply to general cases
oE.g. hear ice cream truck tune (conditioned reinforcer), then gets happy because there is ice cream
(backup reinforcer)
Conditioned reinforcer + multiple backup reinforcer = generalized conditioned reinforcer
oReinforcer that can be used in multiple situations
oE.g. praises (e.g. Good job! Great!) used in a variety of situations, so it becomes generalized
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