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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Notes

11 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 13
Understanding Problem Behaviours through Functional Assessment
Functional Assessment is the process of gathering information about the
antecedents and consequences that are functionally related to the
occurrence of a problem behaviour. It provides information that helps you
determine why a problem behaviour is occurring.
! In addition to information on the reinforcing consequences
(functions) of target behaviours, a functional assessment also
provides detailed information about antecedent stimuli, including
the time and place of the behaviour, people present when the
behaviour occurs, any environmental events immediately
preceding the behaviour, and the frequency (or other dimensions)
of the target behaviour.
Categories of Information from a Functional Assessment
! Problem Behaviours: an objective description of the behaviours that
make up the problem
! Antecedents: an objective description of environmental events
preceding the problem behaviour, including aspects of the physical
environment and the behaviour of other people.
! Consequences: an objective description of environmental events
that follow the problem behaviour, including aspects of the physical
environmental events that follow the problem behaviour, including
aspects of the physical environment and the behaviour of other
people.
! Alternative Behaviours: information on desirable behaviours in the
persons repertoire that may be reinforced to compete with the
problem behaviour.
! Motivational Variables: information on environmental events that
may function as establishing operations to influence the
effectiveness of reinforcers and punishers for the problem
behaviours and alternative behaviours.
! Potential Reinforcers: Information on environmental events
including physical stimuli and the behaviour of other people that
may function as reinforcers and be used in a treatment program.
! Previous Interventions: information on the interventions that have
been used in the past and their effects on the problem behaviour.
www.notesolution.com
FUNCTIONS OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOURS
Social Positive Reinforcement:
- involves positive reinforcement mediated by another person.
- Positively reinforcing consequence is delivered by another person
after the target behaviour
- Ie. Attention, access to activities, tangibles provided by another
person.
- IE. Anna received attention from her parent as a reinforcer for her
problem behaviour, Jacob received his toys back from the other
kids (tangibles) as a reinforcer for his problem behaviour.
Social Negative Reinforcement:
- target behaviours maintained by neg. reinforcement that is
mediated by another person.
- Another person terminates an aversive interaction, task, or activity
after the occurrence of a target behaviour, its maintained by a
social negative reinforcement.
- IE. Child gets out of doing chores by complaining.
- IE. Asking a friend not to smoke in your car " negatively reinforced
by escape or avoidance of the smell of the smoke when the person
puts it out or doesnt light it in the first place.
Automatic Positive Reinforcement:
- occurs as an automatic consequence of the behaviour itself.
- When behaviour produces reinforcing consequence automatically
- IE. Sensory stimulation; children with autism, behaviours reinforce
sensory stimulation.
- IE. Going to the kitchen to get a drink is automatically positively
reinforced by getting the drink, whereas asking someone else to get
you a drink is socially reinforced by getting the drink from the other
person.
Automatic Negative Reinforcement
- when the target behaviour automatically reduces or eliminates an
aversive stimulus as a consequence of the behaviour
- Escape from the aversive stimulus is NOT mediated by the actions of
another person.
- IE. Closing the window to block a cold draft from coming in " auto.
Neg. reinforcement.
- Asking someone to close the window " social negative
reinforcement.
www.notesolution.com
- IE. Binge eating, sometimes maintained by the reduction in
unpleasant emotional responses that were present before binge
eating.
** The BIG difference between the two.
Positive: addition of a non-aversive stimulus. Negative: reduction or
removal of an aversive stimulus
Social: reinforcement involvement of another persons actions. Automatic:
the stimulus itself provides reinforcement
Functional Assessment Methods
Three Categories:
1. indirect assessment methods
2. direct observation methods
3. experimental methods (functional analysis)
1. Indirect assessment:
- information is gathered in interviews, questionnaires.
2. Direct observation methods:
- an observer records the antecedents, behaviour, and
consequences as they occur.
3. Experimental Methods (functional analysis)
- antecedents & consequences are manipulated to observer their
effect on the problem behaviour.
Indirect Methods
- from the person exhibiting problem behaviour (client)
- OR from others who know this person well. (family, teachers, staff,
etc.)
- Informant assessment methods, informant (client / others) is
providing information in response to assessment questions.
- Advantage: easy to conduct, not time-consuming, # of interview
formats / questionnaires are available.
- Disadvantage: information may be incorrect as a result of forgetting
or bias.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 13 Understanding Problem Behaviours through Functional Assessment Functional Assessment is the process of gathering information about the antecedents and consequences that are functionally related to the occurrence of a problem behaviour. It provides information that helps you determine why a problem behaviour is occurring. In addition to information on the reinforcing consequences (functions) of target behaviours, a functional assessment also provides detailed information about antecedent stimuli, including the time and place of the behaviour, people present when the behaviour occurs, any environmental events immediately preceding the behaviour, and the frequency (or other dimensions) of the target behaviour. Categories of Information from a Functional Assessment Problem Behaviours: an objective description of the behaviours that make up the problem Antecedents: an objective description of environmental events preceding the problem behaviour, including aspects of the physical environment and the behaviour of other people. Consequences: an objective description of environmental events that follow the problem behaviour, including aspects of the physical environmental events that follow the problem behaviour, including aspects of the physical environment and the behaviour of other people. Alternative Behaviours: information on desirable behaviours in the persons repertoire that may be reinforced to compete with the problem behaviour. Motivational Variables: information on environmental events that may function as establishing operations to influence the effectiveness of reinforcers and punishers for the problem behaviours and alternative behaviours. Potential Reinforcers: Information on environmental events including physical stimuli and the behaviour of other people that may function as reinforcers and be used in a treatment program. Previous Interventions: information on the interventions that have been used in the past and their effects on the problem behaviour. www.notesolution.comFUNCTIONS OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOURS Social Positive Reinforcement: - involves positive reinforcement mediated by another person. - Positively reinforcing consequence is delivered by another person after the target behaviour - Ie. Attention, access to activities, tangibles provided by another person. - IE. Anna received attention from her parent as a reinforcer for her problem behaviour, Jacob received his toys back from the other kids (tangibles) as a reinforcer for his problem behaviour. Social Negative Reinforcement: - target behaviours maintained by neg. reinforcement that is mediated by another person. - Another person terminates an aversive interaction, task, or activity after the occurrence of a target behaviour, its maintained by a social negative reinforcement. - IE. Child gets out of doing chores by complaining. - IE. Asking a friend not to smoke in your car negatively reinforced by escape or avoidance of the smell of the smoke when the person puts it out or doesnt light it in the first place. Automatic Positive Reinforcement: - occurs as an automatic consequence of the behaviour itself. - When behaviour produces reinforcing consequence automatically - IE. Sensory stimulation; children with autism, behaviours reinforce sensory stimulation. - IE. Going to the kitchen to get a drink is automatically positively reinforced by getting the drink, whereas asking someone else to get you a drink is socially reinforced by getting the drink from the other person. Automatic Negative Reinforcement - when the target behaviour automatically reduces or eliminates an aversive stimulus as a consequence of the behaviour - Escape from the aversive stimulus is NOT mediated by the actions of another person. - IE. Closing the window to block a cold draft from coming in auto. Neg. reinforcement. - Asking someone to close the window social negative reinforcement. www.notesolution.com
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