PSYB45H3 Chapter 15: Combining Respondent and Operant Behaviour

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4 Aug 2016
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Chapter 15 – Respondent and Operant Conditioning Together
Comparing Respondent and Operant Conditioning
Respondent: behaviours NOT affected by their consequences; behaviours elicited by prior stimulus
oE.g. feeling fear of doing the takeoff stance to a double axel jump in skating b/c of pain
Operant: behaviours that can affect the environment/consequences; consequences influence their behaviours
oE.g. not doing the jump in skating to avoid pain
Operant Respondent
Type of Behaviour Voluntary behaviour
Skeletal muscles
Controlled by consequences
Automatic response
Reflexive/involuntary
Controlled by smooth
muscles/glands
Conditioning procedure Stimulus paired with
reinforcer (e.g. punishing;
positive; avoidance; escape)
Neutral stimulus with US
Results of conditioning Response more likely to occur
(S )
Response now occurs with
neutral stimulus, now a CS
Extinction procedure Response no longer
reinforced
CS not paired with US
Results of extinction Response less likely to occur
when S is present
CS does not elicit CR
Many situations are involved with both operant and respondent behaviours. Behavioural explanations often
include both.
Respondent and Operant Components of Emotion
Components of emotion:
oThe feeling itself – internal, private, subjective (respondent)
oOvert, public, objective (operant)
Respondent Component: Our feelings
Internal reactions may prepare the body for fighting or fleeing (e.g. sweating when feeling fear)
Reflexes controlled by the ANS
Not all respondent behaviours stem from ANS, some are from skeletal reflexes (aka motor reflexes)
oSucking reflex; grasp reflex; Moro reflex (arms swinging sideways and startled look when support is
withdrawn); startle reflex; stepping reflex; swimming reflex  ceases when you get older
oBlink reflex; cough reflex; yawn reflex; sneeze reflex; gag reflex  continue into adulthood
Skeletal reflexes harder to condition than automatic reflex
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