PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 25: Weaning, Token Economy

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11 Aug 2016
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Chapter 25 – Token Economies
** check summary of chapter on page 253
Advantages:
oImmediately given after desirable behaviour and cashed at later time for backup reinforcer, so can be
used to “bridge” long delays b/w target response and backup reinforcer
oTokens paired w/ many different backup reinforcers are generalized conditioned reinforcers and do not
depend on specific motivating operations for their strength  easy to administer
Used in many settings and for many people  autism, normal classroom, psychiatric disorders, troubled children,
prisons, drug addiction etc.
Steps for Setting Up and Managing Token Economy
Decide on Target Behaviour
Decide target behaviour based on:
oTypes of individuals
oShort and long range objectives
oSpecific behavioural problems that interfere w/ achieving objectives
E.g. a teacher wants to improve a student’s math/language/ social studies, so that is your target
Target must be clearly defined
Baselines and Keep Data
Baseline data obtained before initiating token economy
Continue to collect data and compare data w/ baseline to determine if token economy is effective or not
Select Type of Tokens to Use
E.g. money, markings (X), poker chips, stickers, stamps
Tokens should be: attractive, light, portable, easy to handle, not easily counterfeited
Ensure adequate # of tokens, acquire necessary tools for handling and storing tokens (e.g. boxes, bags, booklets)
Select Backup Reinforcers
Do not use backup reinforcers are that are immoral, unethical or illegal
oDepriving of someone’s needs such as food, water, shelter
Access to backup reinforcers are referred to as privileges
Response-cost Punishers
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