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PSYB45H3 Chapter Notes -Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, Conditioned Taste Aversion


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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CH.7 Stimulus Control: Discrimination and Generalization
- Antecedents: stimulus events tht precede an operant response. The antecedents of a behavior
are the stimuli, events, situations, or circumstances, that are present when it occurs or were
present immediately before the behavior.
- it is important to understand the antecedents of operant behavior b.c when we do we have info
on the circumstances in which the behavior was reinforced and the circumstances in which the
behavior was not reinforced for was punished. A behavior continues to occur in situations in
which it has been reinforced or has been punished in the past.
Defining Stimulus Control
- a behavior more likely to occur when a specific antecedent was present. A behavior is under
stimulus ctrl when there is an increased probability tht the behavior will occur in the
presence of a specific antecedent stimulus or a stimulus from a specific stimulus (red
strawberries frm example)
Developing Stimulus Control: Stimulus Discrimination Training
- discriminative stimulus: antecedent is present when a behavior is reinforced
- stimulus discrimination training: the process of reinforcing a behavior only when a specific
antecedent stimulus is present. Involves 2 steps: when sD is present, the behavior is present
AND when any other antecedent stimuli except the sD are present, the behaviour is not
reinforced. During discrimination training, any antecedent stimulus tht is present when the
behavior is not reinforced is called an S-delta.
- As a result of discrimination training, a behavior is more likely to occur in the future when an sD
is present but less likely to occur when an S-delta is present. Presence of an sD does not cause a
behavior to occur; it does not strengthen a behavior. Rather, it increases likelihood of (or
evokes) the behavior in the present situation because it was assoctd with reinforcement of the
behavior in the past, reinforcement is wht causes the behavior to occur when sD is present.
Discrimination training in the Lab
- Holland and Skinner, hungry pigeon peck at disks with green and red keys to get food. They
turned the red light Sd and then whenever the pigeon pecked the key, they delivered food
(reinforcement). Sometimes they turned on the green light (s-delta) and when the pigeon
pecked the key, they didn’t deliver food (extinction). Because of the process of discrimination
training, the pigeon is more likely to peck the key when the light is red and less likely to peck
the key when the light is green. The red light signal tht key-pecking will be reinforced; the green
light signals tht key-pecking will not be reinforced
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- If a behavior is punished in the presence of one antecedent stimulus, the behavior will decrease
and stop occurring in the future when tht stimulus is present. Behavior may continue to occur
when other antecedent stimuli are present.
The 3 term contingency
- Skinner; stimulus discrimination training involves a three-term contingency in which the
consequence (reinforcer or punisher) is a contingent on the occurrence of the behavior only in
the presence of the specific antecedent stimulus called the Sd (consequence is contingent if
the behavior occurs in the presence of the antecedent stimulus). Often called the ABCs
(antecedent, behavior and consequence) of a behavior. Notation for 3 term contingency
involving reinforcement; Sd (discriminative stimulus)R (response, an instance of the
behavior)Sr (reinforcer, or reinforcing stimulus). Notation for 3 term contingency involving
punishment is SdRSp ( discriminative stimulus, punisher, punishing stimulus)
Generalization
- It takes place when a behavior occurs in the presence of stimulus tht are similar in some ways
to the sD tht was present during stimulus discrimination training
- Generalization gradient: the more similar another stimulus is to the sD, the more likely it is tht
the behavior will occur in the presence of tht stimulus. A stimuli are less and less similar to the
sD, the behavior is less and less likely to occur in the presence of these stimuli
- Stimulus class: antecedent stimuli tht share similar features tht have the sme functional effect
on a particular behavior. Stimulus generalization has also occurred when the child complies
with the request of another adult not just the parents.
CH.8 Respondent Conditioning
- Operant Behaviors are ctrlled by their consequences, operant conditioning involves the
manipulation of consequences, respondent behaviors are ctrlled (elicited) by antecedent
stimuli and respondent conditioning involves the manipulation of antecedent stimuli
Examples of Respondent Conditioning
- Unconditioned responses: responses are elicited by antecedent stimuli even though no
conditioning or learning has occurred.
- URs can occur to anyone when an unconditioned stimulus is presented. We respond to
unconditioned stimulus as it has survival value
- Respondent conditioning occurs when a previously neutral stimulus is paired with a US, as a
result of this pairing, the NS becomes a conditioned stimulus and elicits a conditioned
response similar to the UR. A UR or CR is called a respondent behavior.
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