Shaping: used to dvlp a target behavior tht a person does not currently exhibit. Shaping is defined as the differential reinforcement of successive approximations of a target behavior until the person exhibits the target behavior. Differential reinforcement involves the basic principles of reinforcement and extinctions. Differential reinforcement occurs when one particular behavior is reinforced and all other behaviors aren"t reinforced in a particular situation. The behavior tht is reinforced increases and behaviors tht aren"t reinforced decrease through extinction. To begin shaping, you identify an existing behavior tht is an approximation of the target behavior, this is called starting behavior or first approximation. You reinforce this behavior and as a result, the person starts to exhibit this behavior more often. You stop reinforcing the behavior and as part of subsequent extinction burst, novel behaviors typically begin to appear. Then you start reinforcing a novel behavior tht is a close approximation to the target behavior.