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Chapter 22

Chapter 22 Summary Guide

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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CHAPTER 22: THE TOKEN ECONOMY
Defining a Token Economy
Token economy: used with adolescents in a residential treatment program
Strengthens the clients desirable behaviours that occur too infrequently & to decrease
undesirable behaviour in a structured treatment environment
Token: each point received by the client for desirable behaviour
The token is later exchanged for backup reinforcers
Since the token is paired with other reinforcers, it becomes a conditioned reinforcer that
strengthens desirable behaviour
The following are basic components of a token economy:
The desirable target behaviours to be strengthened
The tokens to be used as conditioned reinforcers
The backup reinforcers to be exchanged for the tokens
A reinforcement schedule for token delivery
The rate at which tokens are exchanged for the backup reinforcers
Implementing a Token Economy
Defining the Target Behaviours
The target behaviours will vary in a token economy depending on the people being treated
& the nature of the treatment environment
Target behaviours might include academic skills in an educational setting
The main criterion for choosing the target behaviour is that they are socially significant
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for those involved in the program
Objective behavioural definitions ensure that the clients know what behaviours are
expected of them
Identifying the Items to Use as Tokens
The token must be something tangible that the change agent can delivery immediately
Must be practical and convenient for change agent to carry & to dispense
Must be in a from that clients can accumulate, and in most cases carry with them
Example – points on a card can be used as tokens; the point written on the card is
tangible, can be easily dispensed by the change agent, & easily accumulated by the
adolescent in the program
The token should not be available from any source other than the change agent
Tokens are not effective if clients can access them through external sources
Identifying Backup Reinforcers
The effectiveness of a token economy depends on the backup reinforcers
Backup reinforcers must be chosen specifically for the people in the treatment program
due to individual differences
Limiting access to backup reinforcers increases their reinforcing value because a relative
state of deprivation is established
Basic rights (such as protection or food) cannot be taken away from a person, thus
reinforcers must be those that are above the clients basic needs or rights
Deciding on the Appropriate Schedule of Reinforcement
Often the program begins with continuous reinforcement
Later, an intermittent reinforcement schedule is incorporated to maintain behaviour
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Description
CHAPTER 22: THE TOKEN ECONOMY Defining a Token Economy Token economy: used with adolescents in a residential treatment program Strengthens the clients desirable behaviours that occur too infrequently & to decrease undesirable behaviour in a structured treatment environment Token: each point received by the client for desirable behaviour The token is later exchanged for backup reinforcers Since the token is paired with other reinforcers, it becomes a conditioned reinforcer that strengthens desirable behaviour The following are basic components of a token economy: The desirable target behaviours to be strengthened The tokens to be used as conditioned reinforcers The backup reinforcers to be exchanged for the tokens A reinforcement schedule for token delivery The rate at which tokens are exchanged for the backup reinforcers Implementing a Token Economy Defining the Target Behaviours The target behaviours will vary in a token economy depending on the people being treated & the nature of the treatment environment Target behaviours might include academic skills in an educational setting The main criterion for choosing the target behaviour is that they are socially significant www.notesolution.com
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