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Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Notes

10 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 14: Applying Extinction
Extinction: Use of extinction to eliminate a problem behaviour. Extinction is
a basic principle of behaviour in which eliminating the reinforcing
consequence for a behaviour results in the decrease in the frequency of
the behaviour. To use extinction you must first identify the reinforcer that
maintains the problem behaviour and then eliminate it. A behaviour that
is no longer reinforced will decrease in frequency and stop.
Case of Willy
- 54 year old w/ mild mental retardation
- moved into group home
- PROBLEM BEHAVIOUR: argued when asked by staff person to do a
training activity ie. Cooking, cleaning, laundry, or another
independent living skill.
- Functional assessment interview & ABC observations produced info:
o Antecedent : a female staff person asked Willy to perform a
daily living task. Willy didnt do this when a male staff person
asked him to perform a task.
o Problem Behaviour: Willy verbally refused to do the task &
made statements ie. “Thats womens work” etc. This
continued up to 15 minutes, but usually he would complete
the task eventually.
o Consequence: the female staff member argued w/ Willy, said
he was making sexist comments, & tried to convince him that
men have to do these also, often became visibly upset &
argued with him until he started to perform the task.
o Hypothesis: the antecedent event: female member asking
Willy to complete a task & staff persons attention (arguing,
explaining, emotional reaction) after the problem behaviour
was the reinforcing consequence
o ** Negative reinforcement (escape) didnt play a role
because Willy eventually completed the task.
o Outcome: Willy is more likely to refuse to do tasks and make
sexist remarks when female staff members make a request.
- Goal: decrease the frequency of Willys problem behaviour.
- THUS: Female staff members would have to eliminate their attention
after the behaviour
- Group home ! meeting w/ staff to teach them how to use
extinction w/ Willy.
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- “Whenever you make a request for Willy to complete a task & he
refuses or makes sexist comments, dont repeat the request & dont
respond to Willy in any way. Dont argue with him, dont try to talk
him into doing the task, dont try to explain to him his sexist remarks
are unacceptable, dont show any kind of emotional reaction,
dont make a face that looks disappointed or upset, Simply walk
away & engage in another activity when Willy engages in the
problem behaviour.
- The manager then modeled the behaviour for her staff.
- Warned staff of “extinction bursts where his refusals may get
louder, longer, or more upsetting.
- Important that everyone applies extinction procedure consistently.
- In conjunction with this, the group manager asked staff to praise
Willy as soon as he started to engage in the desired task.
- The staff should reinforce Willys cooperative behaviour with their
attention so that this behaviour would increase as his problem
behaviour decreased.
- Since Willy wouldnt get attention from the staff for refusing &
making sexist comments, it was important for Willy to receive staff
attention for the desirable behaviour.
Extinction
Antecedent: Female staff member makes a request
Behaviour: Willy refuses to complete the task, makes sexist comments.
Consequence: Staff member walks away, pays no attention.
OUTCOME: Willy is less likely to refuse requests and make sexist comments
in the future.
Reinforcement
Antecedent: Female staff member makes a request
Behaviour: Willy complies with the request.
Consequence: Staff member provides praise
OUTCOME: Willy is more likely to comply with staff requests in the future.
- To promote generalization of the behaviour change, the group
home manager emphasized all staff must use the extinction
procedure & the reinforcement procedure at all times and in all
situations with Willy.
- She also asked Willys parents for help when he visited them on
weekends.
- They could do 1 of 2 things.
- 1.) They could refrain from asking him to do any tasks while he visits
OR
www.notesolution.com
- 2.) They could use the extinction procedure in the same way that
the staff was using it.
- Not asking him to do any tasks is stimulus control ! removed
antecedent for the behavioural problem so it wouldnt occur. (IE.
Willy couldnt refuse to do a task if he isnt asked to do one)
- Willys mother always did everything for him anyways, so she was
most comfortable with this option.
- Staff members collected data on the %age of times Willy refused to
complete tasks & found his refusals decreased over time once the
extinction procedure was implemented. He continued to refuse
once and a while, but the staff did not reinforce the behaviour and
the refusals didnt last very long. Usually Willy completed the tasks
staff requested as soon as they asked him.
- Using extinction to decrease a problem behaviour.
Steps in Using Extinction
1. Collect data to assess treatment effects.
2. Identify the reinforcer for the problem behaviour through functional
assessment.
3. Eliminate the reinforcer after each instance of the problem
behaviour.
a. Identify reinforcer
b. Eliminate reinforcer
c. Is extinction safe to use?
d. Can extinction burst be tolerated?
e. Can consistency be maintained?
4. Consider schedule of reinforcement for the problem behaviour
5. Reinforce alternative behaviours
6. Promote generalization & maintenance
Using Extinction to Decrease a Problem Behaviour
Extinction is one of the FIRST approaches that should be considered for
treating a problem behaviour. As long as a problem behaviour continues,
there MUST be a reinforcing consequence contingent on behaviour
maintaining it. THUS to decrease the behaviour, you must identify the
reinforcing consequence & eliminate it. When the PB isnt reinforced, it will
extinguish.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 14: Applying Extinction Extinction: Use of extinction to eliminate a problem behaviour. Extinction is a basic principle of behaviour in which eliminating the reinforcing consequence for a behaviour results in the decrease in the frequency of the behaviour. To use extinction you must first identify the reinforcer that maintains the problem behaviour and then eliminate it. A behaviour that is no longer reinforced will decrease in frequency and stop. Case of Willy - 54 year old w mild mental retardation - moved into group home - PROBLEM BEHAVIOUR: argued when asked by staff person to do a training activity ie. Cooking, cleaning, laundry, or another independent living skill. - Functional assessment interview & ABC observations produced info: o Antecedent : a female staff person asked Willy to perform a daily living task. Willy didnt do this when a male staff person asked him to perform a task. o Problem Behaviour: Willy verbally refused to do the task & made statements ie. Thats womens work etc. This continued up to 15 minutes, but usually he would complete the task eventually. o Consequence: the female staff member argued w Willy, said he was making sexist comments, & tried to convince him that men have to do these also, often became visibly upset & argued with him until he started to perform the task. o Hypothesis: the antecedent event: female member asking Willy to complete a task & staff persons attention (arguing, explaining, emotional reaction) after the problem behaviour was the reinforcing consequence o ** Negative reinforcement (escape) didnt play a role because Willy eventually completed the task. o Outcome: Willy is more likely to refuse to do tasks and make sexist remarks when female staff members make a request. - Goal: decrease the frequency of Willys problem behaviour. - THUS: Female staff members would have to eliminate their attention after the behaviour - Group home meeting w staff to teach them how to use extinction w Willy. www.notesolution.com
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