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PSYB45H3 (1,085)
Chapter 15

Chapter 15 Notes

12 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 15:
Differential Reinforcement
Differential Reinforcement procedures ! involve applying reinforcement &
extinction to increase the occurrence of a desirable target behaviour or
to decrease the occurrence of undesirable behaviours.
Three Types of Differential Reinforcement Procedures:
1. DRA : differential reinforcement of alternative behaviour
2. DRO : differential reinforcement of other behaviour
3. DRL : differential reinforcement of low rates of responding
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviour
- used to increase frequency of a desirable behaviour & decrease
frequency of undesirable behaviours.
- Desirable reinforced each time it occurs
- Results in increase in the future probability of the DB.
- Undesirable behaviours that may interfere w/ the DB are not
reinforced
- Results in a decrease in the future probability of the UDB.
- Combining reinforcement for a DB & extinction of UDB.
- EG: Getting Mrs. Williams to Be Positive
" Been in nursing home for about a yr, complained whenever
she saw a nurse, nurses would comfort, it would get worse.
Rarely said anything positive anymore.
" Nurses instructed to do 3 things:
1. When they saw Mrs. Williams they were to say
something positive to her immediately
2. Whenever Mrs. Williams says anything positive, the nurse
was to stop what they were doing immediately, smile at
her and actively listen to her and pay attention to what
she was saying. They were to continue listening and
actively pay attention to her as long as she continued
saying positive things.
3. Whenever Mrs. Williams started to complain, the nurses
were to excuse themselves & leave the room or
become to busy to listen at that time. As soon as Mrs.
Williams said anything positive the nurse was to stop
what they were doing and pay attention to her again.
www.notesolution.com
o Nurses consistently applied this program and in a matter of
weeks Mrs. Williams was complaining less, saying many more
positive things and complaining very little.
o Reinforcement:
o Antecedent nurse present
o Response Mrs. Williams says positive things
o Consequence Nurses provide attention
o OUTCOME: In future, Mrs. W is more likely to say positive
things when a nurse is present.
o Extinction:
o Antecedent nurse present
o Response Mrs. W complains
o Consequence Nurses don’t provide attention
o OUTCOME: In the future Mrs. W is less likely to complain to
nurses.
o Mrs. Williams said more positive things, it was not only because
this behaviour was reinforced by the nurses but also because
complaining was decreased through extinction. If the nurses did
not use extinction for the complaining, it would continue to
occur and there would be less opportunity for positive talk to
increase.
When to use DRA:
Answer three questions:
1. Do you want to increase the rate of a desirable behaviour?
2. Is the behaviour already occurring at least occasionally?
3. Do you have access to a reinforcer that you can deliver after the
occurrence of the behaviour?
- DRA : procedure for strengthening a desirable behaviour
- If the behaviour itself isnt occurring at all, then DRA is not an
appropriate procedure on its own.
- If procedures such as shaping or prompting are used initially to
evoke behaviour, DRA may then be used to strengthen & maintain
the behaviour.
- MUST be able to identify a reinforcer that you can use each time
the behaviour occurs.
- IF: no identifiable reinforcer OR no control over the reinforcer, you
cannot use DRA.
www.notesolution.com
How to use DRA
1. Define the desirable behaviour
2. Define the undesirable behaviour
3. Identify the reinforcer
4. Reinforce the desirable behaviour immediately & consistently
5. Eliminate reinforcement for the undesirable behaviours
6. Use intermittent reinforcement to maintain the target behaviour
7. Program for generalization
- clearly identify & define the desirable behaviour that you plan to
increase with DRA
- clearly define the undesirable behaviours you plan to decrease
with DRA
- identify the reinforcer you will use in DRA procedure ! reinforcer
specific to the person whom you are working with.
Possibilities in identifying the Reinforcer
" use the reinforcer that is currently maintaining the undesirable
behaviour. You already know its effective.
" EG. Used attention that was reinforcing Mrs. Ws behaviour,
turned it into a reinforcer for the desired behaviour instead.
" ANOTHER way ! observe the person & note which activities /
interests they pursue.
" EG. Use premack principle ! use opportunity to engage
delinquents in doing their homework (low-frequency) for the
high-frequency of a prefered behaviour: playing video games.
" ANOTHER way ! ask them questions: What do they like? What
do they enjoy doing?
" ANOTHER ! try a variety of different stimuli & see which ones
function as reinforcers. EG. A toy is presented, does the child
reach for it, touch it, or try to play with it.
" ANOTHER ! make each potential reinforcer contingent on an
operant response. If the frequency or duration of the response
increases when a stimulus is contingent on the response, you
have demonstrated that the stimulus is a reinforcer.
" They recorded the duration of switch activation as an indication
of which stimuli were reinforcers for students. If a student pressed
the switch that turned on the music for much longer than other
switches, the researcher could conclude that music was a
reinforcer for the student.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 15: Differential Reinforcement Differential Reinforcement procedures involve applying reinforcement & extinction to increase the occurrence of a desirable target behaviour or to decrease the occurrence of undesirable behaviours. Three Types of Differential Reinforcement Procedures: 1. DRA : differential reinforcement of alternative behaviour 2. DRO : differential reinforcement of other behaviour 3. DRL : differential reinforcement of low rates of responding Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviour - used to increase frequency of a desirable behaviour & decrease frequency of undesirable behaviours. - Desirable reinforced each time it occurs - Results in increase in the future probability of the DB. - Undesirable behaviours that may interfere w the DB are not reinforced - Results in a decrease in the future probability of the UDB. - Combining reinforcement for a DB & extinction of UDB. - EG: Getting Mrs. Williams to Be Positive Been in nursing home for about a yr, complained whenever she saw a nurse, nurses would comfort, it would get worse. Rarely said anything positive anymore. Nurses instructed to do 3 things: 1. When they saw Mrs. Williams they were to say something positive to her immediately 2. Whenever Mrs. Williams says anything positive, the nurse was to stop what they were doing immediately, smile at her and actively listen to her and pay attention to what she was saying. They were to continue listening and actively pay attention to her as long as she continued saying positive things. 3. Whenever Mrs. Williams started to complain, the nurses were to excuse themselves & leave the room or become to busy to listen at that time. As soon as Mrs. Williams said anything positive the nurse was to stop what they were doing and pay attention to her again. www.notesolution.com o Nurses consistently applied this program and in a matter of weeks Mrs. Williams was complaining less, saying many more positive things and complaining very little. o Reinforcement: o Antecedent nurse present o Response Mrs. Williams says positive things o Consequence Nurses provide attention o OUTCOME: In future, Mrs. W is more likely to say positive things when a nurse is present. o Extinction: o Antecedent nurse present o Response Mrs. W complains o Consequence Nurses dont provide attention o OUTCOME: In the future Mrs. W is less likely to complain to nurses. o Mrs. Williams said more positive things, it was not only because this behaviour was reinforced by the nurses but also because complaining was decreased through extinction. If the nurses did not use extinction for the complaining, it would continue to occur and there would be less opportunity for positive talk to increase. When to use DRA: Answer three questions: 1. Do you want to increase the rate of a desirable behaviour? 2. Is the behaviour already occurring at least occasionally? 3. Do you have access to a reinforcer that you can deliver after the occurrence of the behaviour? - DRA : procedure for strengthening a desirable behaviour - If the behaviour itself isnt occurring at all, then DRA is not an appropriate procedure on its own. - If procedures such as shaping or prompting are used initially to evoke behaviour, DRA may then be used to strengthen & maintain the behaviour. - MUST be able to identify a reinforcer that you can use each time the behaviour occurs. - IF: no identifiable reinforcer OR no control over the reinforcer, you cannot use DRA. www.notesolution.com
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