How to use DRA
1. Define the desirable behaviour
2. Define the undesirable behaviour
3. Identify the reinforcer
4. Reinforce the desirable behaviour immediately & consistently
5. Eliminate reinforcement for the undesirable behaviours
6. Use intermittent reinforcement to maintain the target behaviour
7. Program for generalization
- clearly identify & define the desirable behaviour that you plan to
increase with DRA
- clearly define the undesirable behaviours you plan to decrease
- identify the reinforcer you will use in DRA procedure ! reinforcer
specific to the person whom you are working with.
Possibilities in identifying the Reinforcer
" use the reinforcer that is currently maintaining the undesirable
behaviour. You already know its effective.
" EG. Used attention that was reinforcing Mrs. W’s behaviour,
turned it into a reinforcer for the desired behaviour instead.
" ANOTHER way ! observe the person & note which activities /
interests they pursue.
" EG. Use premack principle ! use opportunity to engage
delinquents in doing their homework (low-frequency) for the
high-frequency of a prefered behaviour: playing video games.
" ANOTHER way ! ask them questions: What do they like? What
do they enjoy doing?
" ANOTHER ! try a variety of different stimuli & see which ones
function as reinforcers. EG. A toy is presented, does the child
reach for it, touch it, or try to play with it.
" ANOTHER ! make each potential reinforcer contingent on an
operant response. If the frequency or duration of the response
increases when a stimulus is contingent on the response, you
have demonstrated that the stimulus is a reinforcer.
" They recorded the duration of switch activation as an indication
of which stimuli were reinforcers for students. If a student pressed
the switch that turned on the music for much longer than other
switches, the researcher could conclude that music was a
reinforcer for the student.