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CA (168,184)
UTSC (19,294)
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PSYB45H3 (1,085)
Chapter 17

Chapter 17

2 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 17 Using Punishment: Time out and Response Cost
Punishment occurs when a behaviour is followed by a consequence that results in a
decrease in the future probability of the behaviour. The consequence may involve the
presentation of a stimulus event (positive punishment) or the removal of a stimulus event
(negative punishment)
Time out: defined as the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a brief period contingent on
the problem behaviour
Non exclusionary time out: remains in the room, but removed from the reinforcing activity
Exclusionary time out: taken out of the room; no reinforcers available
Time out is appropriate for behaviours that are maintained by positive reinforcement
involving social or tangible reinforcers. Not for use when maintained by negative
reinforcement or sensory stimulation.
Contingent observation: contingent on the occurrence of the problem behaviour, the child
had to sit and watch the other children play appropriately
Response cost: the removal of a specified amount of a reinforcer contingent on the
occurrence of a problem behaviour. Its a negative punishment procedure when it results in
a decrease in the future probability of the problem behaviour
With extinction, the problem behaviour is no longer followed by the reinforcing event that
previously maintained the behaviour.
With time out, the person is removed from access to all sources of reinforcement contingent
on the problem behaviour.
With response cost, a specific amount of a reinforcer the person already possesses is
removed after the problem behaviour
Chapter 18 Positive Punishment Procedures and the Ethics of Punishment
Application of aversive behaviours
Overcorrection: the client is required to engage in an effortful behaviour for an extended
period contingent on each instance of the problem behaviour. Two forms: positive practice
and restitution
Positive Practice: client has to engage in correct forms of relevant behaviour contingent on
an instance of the problem behaviour
Restitution: on each instance of the problem behaviour, the client must correct the
environmental effects of the problem behaviour and restore the environment to a condition
better than that which existed before the problem behaviour
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Description
Chapter 17 Using Punishment: Time out and Response Cost Punishment occurs when a behaviour is followed by a consequence that results in a decrease in the future probability of the behaviour. The consequence may involve the presentation of a stimulus event (positive punishment) or the removal of a stimulus event (negative punishment) Time out: defined as the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a brief period contingent on the problem behaviour Non exclusionary time out: remains in the room, but removed from the reinforcing activity Exclusionary time out: taken out of the room; no reinforcers available Time out is appropriate for behaviours that are maintained by positive reinforcement involving social or tangible reinforcers. Not for use when maintained by negative reinforcement or sensory stimulation. Contingent observation: contingent on the occurrence of the problem behaviour, the child had to sit and watch the other children play appropriately Response cost: the removal of a specified amount of a reinforcer contingent on the occurrence of a problem behaviour. Its a negative punishment procedure when it results in
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