•Reinforcement for imitation typically starts early in a child’s life.
•As a result, a model’s behaviour becomes an SD for imitation, and imitation becomes a
generalized response class, which means that imitation is likely to occur in the future
when a behaviour is modeled for the learner.
•Modeling may be live or it may be symbolic.
•In live modeling, another person demonstrates the appropriate behaviour in the
•With symbolic modeling, the correct behaviour is demonstrated on videotape, audiotape,
or possibly in a cartoon or a movie.
•Researchers found that the children who received the modeling, instructions, rehearsal,
and feedback learned the abduction prevention skills better than the children who got
instructions and modeling from the video tape without the chance for rehearsal and
Factors That Influence The Effectiveness Of Modeling
•When the model exhibits the correct behaviour, it should result in a successful outcome
(a reinforcer) for the model.
•The model should resemble the people observing the model or should have high status.
For example, teachers (high status) model correct behaviour for the children.
•The complexity of the model’s behaviour should be appropriate to the developmental or
ability level of the learner.
•The learner has to pay attention to the model to learn the behaviour being modeled.
•The modeled behaviour must occur in the proper content (in response to the relevant SD).
For example, the children saw the abduction skills modeled in response to abduction lures
from an adult, that is, in the situation in which they would be needed.
•The modeled behaviour should be repeated as often as necessary for the learner to imitate
•The behaviour should be modeled in a variety of ways and in a variety of situations to
•The learner should have an opportunity to rehearse (imitate) the behaviour as soon as
possible after observing the model. Correct imitation of the modeled behaviour should be