•Using extinction by not providing attention when Mrs. William complains to stop the problem
•Antecedent: A nurse is present Response: Mrs. Williams complains Consequence: Nurse
does not provide attention.
•Outcome: In the future, Mrs. Williams is less likely to complain to nurses.
•DRA is a procedure for strengthening a desirable behavior.
•The desirable behavior must be occurring at least occasionally if you are to reinforce it.
•However, if procedures such as shaping or prompting are used to initially evoke the behavior,
DRA may then be used to strengthen and maintain the behavior.
•You must be able to identify a reinforcer that you can use each time the behavior occurs.
How to Use DRA
1. Define the Desirable Behavior
oA clear behavioral definition helps ensure that you are reinforcing the correct
2. Define the Undesirable Behaviors
oA clear behavioral definition helps ensure that you are not using reinforcement
when the undesirable behavior occurs.
3. Identify the Reinforcer
oObserve the client and identify the reinforcer for the problem behavior. That
reinforcer could be used to increase more appropriate behaviors.
oObserve the client and identify high-rate behaviors (i.e playing video games and
using them as reinforcers for completing homework)
oAsk the client, parents, or teachers.
oUse reinforcer questionnaires.
oPresent potential reinforcers and measure approach behaviors. For example,
when a snack is presented, does the child reach for it or try to eat it? These
approach responses would indicate that the food was a reinforcer for this child.
oPresent potential reinforcers contingent on an operant response and measure
response rate or duration. For example Wacker had students press a switch to
activate different electric games or instruments. If a student pressed the switch