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Chapter 17

Chapter 17 Notes

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 17: Using Punishment: Time-out and Response Cost
Punishment occurs when a behavior is followed by a consequence that results in a decrease in the
future probability of the behavior.
The consequence following the behavior may involve the presentation of a stimulus event
(positive punishment) for the removal of a stimulus event (negative punishment).
However, punishment procedures typically are used only after functional nonaversive
interventionsextinction, differential reinforcement, and antecedent manipulations – have been
implemented or considered.
When these procedures are implemented and result in a decrease in the problem behavior,
punishment procedures are unnecessary.
If a punishment procedure is used, it is often a negative punishment procedure involving the
removal of reinforcing events after a problem behavior.
Time-out
Example
Cheryl and the other kindergarten children were sitting around the table making figures out of
clay and finger painting.
After a little while, Cheryl threw one of her clay figures and smashed some figures made by other
children.
The teacher walked up to Cheryl and said Cheryl come with me. Then she took Cheryl by the
arm and walked her to a chair across the room.
When they got to the chair she said, Cheryl, you cant play when you throw things or break
things. Sit here until I say you can play again.
After 2 minutes, the teacher walked back over to Cheryl and said, Cheryl, you can come back to
the table and play now
When Cheryl came back and played without any further problems, the teacher talked to her and
praised her for playing nicely.
Types of Time-out
www.notesolution.com
Time-out is defined as the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a brief period contingent on
the problem behavior.
The result is a decrease in the future probability of the problem behavior.
Time-out is short for time-out from positive reinforcement.
There are two types of time-out:
oNonexclusionary time-out: The person remains in the room while being
removed from access to positive reinforcers.
o This procedure is used when the presence of the person in the room will not be
disruptive to others in the environment.
oFor example, Cheryl sat across the room in the time-out chair.
oExclusionary time-out: The person is removed from the room (the reinforcing
environment) where the problem behavior occurred and is taken to another room. This
removes the person from all sources of positive reinforcement.
oFor example, Kenny was taken out of the room where he was watching TV or playing.
He was taken to a room where these reinforcers were not available.
Using Reinforcement with Time-out
Whenever you use time-out (or any other punishment procedure), you should also use a
differential reinforcement procedure.
The time-out procedure decreases the rate of the problem behavior, and a differential
reinforcement procedure increases an alternative behavior to replace the problem (differential
reinforcement of alternative behavior [DRA])
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 17: Using Punishment: Time-out and Response Cost Punishment occurs when a behavior is followed by a consequence that results in a decrease in the future probability of the behavior. The consequence following the behavior may involve the presentation of a stimulus event (positive punishment) for the removal of a stimulus event (negative punishment). However, punishment procedures typically are used only after functional nonaversive interventions extinction, differential reinforcement, and antecedent manipulations have been implemented or considered. When these procedures are implemented and result in a decrease in the problem behavior, punishment procedures are unnecessary. If a punishment procedure is used, it is often a negative punishment procedure involving the removal of reinforcing events after a problem behavior. Time-out Example Cheryl and the other kindergarten children were sitting around the table making figures out of clay and finger painting. After a little while, Cheryl threw one of her clay figures and smashed some figures made by other children. The teacher walked up to Cheryl and said Cheryl come with me. Then she took Cheryl by the arm and walked her to a chair across the room. When they got to the chair she said, Cheryl, you cant play when you throw things or break things. Sit here until I say you can play again. After 2 minutes, the teacher walked back over to Cheryl and said, Cheryl, you can come back to the table and play now When Cheryl came back and played without any further problems, the teacher talked to her and praised her for playing nicely. Types of Time-out www.notesolution.com
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