Textbook Notes (380,908)
CA (168,275)
UTSC (19,296)
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PSYB45H3 (1,085)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4

2 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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PSYB45Chapter 4
Reinforcement – process where behavior is strengthened by the immediate _____________ that reliably
follows its _____________.
Operant Behavior – a behavior that is strengthened through reinforcement
acts on the ____________ to produce a consequence; is controlled by/occurs again as a result of
its immediate consequence (=reinforcer)
Positive reinforcement – the occurrence of the behavior is followed by the addition of a
_________________ stimulus or an ___ in intensity of a stimulus, which results in the strengthening of
the behavior
Negative reinforcement – the occurrence of the behavior is followed by the addition of a
_________________stimulus or a ___ decrease in the instensity of a stimulus, which results in the
strengthening of the behavior
Stimulus – an object/event that has the potential to influence the person
Social vs Automatic Rinforcement
1.Social when a behavior produces a reinforcing consequence through actions of another person
2.Automatic when behavior produces a reinforcing consequence through direct contact with the
physical environment
Premack principle – involves the opportunity to engage in a preferred behavior as a consequence of a
less-preferred behavior, to ____ the less-preferred behavior
Escape and Avoidance Behaviors
1.Escape – occurrence of behavior results in termination of aversive stimulus
2.Avidance – occurrence of behavior prevents the presentation of aversive stimulus
Conditioned and Unconditioned Reinforcers
1.Unconditioned (primary reinforcer)
a.reinforcers function the first time they are present
2.Conditioned (secondary reinforcer)
a.A stimulus that was once neutral but became established as a reinforcer by being
paired with an unconditioned reinforcer/an already established conditioned reinforcer
Generalized conditioned reinforcer – a conditioned reinforcer is paired with a wide variety of other
reinforcers
Factors that influence the effectiveness of reinforcement:
1)Immediacy
2)Contingency
3)Establishing operations
a.Deprivation
b.Satiation
4)Individual Differences
5)Magnitude
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Description
PSYB45Chapter 4 Reinforcement process where behavior is strengthened by the immediate _____________ that reliably follows its _____________. Operant Behavior a behavior that is strengthened through reinforcement acts on the ____________ to produce a consequence; is controlled byoccurs again as a result of its immediate consequence (=reinforcer) Positive reinforcement the occurrence of the behavior is followed by the addition of a _________________ stimulus or an ___ in intensity of a stimulus, which results in the strengthening of the behavior Negative reinforcement the occurrence of the behavior is followed by the addition of a _________________stimulus or a ___ decrease in the instensity of a stimulus, which results in the strengthening of the behavior Stimulus an objectevent that has the potential to influence the person Social vs Automatic Rinforcement 1. Social when a behavior produces a reinforcing consequence through actions of another person 2. Automatic when behavior produces a reinforcing consequence through direct contact with the physical environment Premack principle i
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