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Chapter 11

PSYB51H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Vocal Tract


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB51H3
Professor
Niemier
Chapter
11

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CHAPTER 11: MUSIC AND SPEEC H PERCEPTION
Chords
Music is further defined by richer complex sounds called chords.
Chords: are created when three or more notes are played simultaneously.
Can be consonant or dissonant
Consonant - Perceived to be most displeasing
๎€Are combinations of notes in which the ratios between the note frequencies
are simple.
๎€Consonant relationships are 2:1 ratio or perfect fifths (3: 2) and perfect
fourth.
Dissonant ratios are defined by less elegant ratios
๎€Are not particularly pleasant
๎€i.e the minor second (16:15) or the augmented fourth ( 45 :32)
because chords are defined by the ratios of the note frequencies combined to produce
them, theya re named the same no matter what octave they are played in.
i.e G-major chord consists of G,B and D no matter the octaves as long as the ratios
are the same!
Cultural differences
Musical scales and intervals vary across cultures
Relationship between notes such as octaves are universal, diff musical streams use
different number of notes and spaces between notes with in an octave.
Because people around the world have evry diff listening experiences, they hear
musical ntoes in diff ways
Better estimates of intervals if those notes correspond to their cultural scales.
Making Music
Notes or chords can form a melody.
www.notesolution.com

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Melody: - a sequence of sounds perceived as a single coherent structure.
๎€Is defined by its contour โ€“ the pattern of rises and declines in pitch rather
than by an sequence of sound frequencies.
Speech
Human vocal tract โ€“ the airway above the larynx used for the production of
speech. includes the oral tract and nasal tract.
Unlike other animals, the larynx is positioned quite low in the throat.the
disadvantages are:
1. More susceptible to choking
2.Beyond infancy, we cannot swallow and breathe at the same time
the fact that these disadvantages were evolutionarily trumped by the advantage of
oral communication indicates the importance of language to human life.
SPEECH PRODUCTION
Speech production ahs 3 components:
Respiration โ€“ lungs
Phonation โ€“ vocal cords
Articulation โ€“ vocal tract
Speaking fluently requires coordination among these components
RESPIRATION AND PHONATION
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To initiate a speech sound, the diaphragm pushes the air out of the lungs, throught
the trachea and up to the larynx.
At the larynx, air must pass through the 2 vocal folds.
The vocal folds are made up of muscle tissue which can be adjusted to vary how
freely air passes through the opening between them.
These adjustments are described as phonation.
The rate at which the vocal folds vibrate depends on their stiffnesss and mass. i.e
children have small vocal folds, hence having high-pitched voices.adult males have
lower โ€“pitched voices prompted by the effects of testosterone which increase the
mass of vocal folds.
By varying the tension(stiffness) of vocal folds and the pressure of airflow from the
lungs, talkers can vary the fundamental frequency of voiced sounds.
Vibration of vocal folds create a harmonic spectrum.sounds like a buzz.the first
harmonic responds to actual rate of physical vibration of the vocal folds (=the
fundamental freq).
Talkers can make interesting modifications in the way their vocal folds vibrate.i.e
breathy etc
ARTICULATION
The area above the larynx- the nasal tract and the oral tract combined is referred to
as vocal tract.
Humans have a impressive ability to change the shape of the vocal tract by
manipulating the jaws, lips tongue body, tongue tip etc.
Articulation - the act of producing speech using the vocal tract.
Changing the size and shape of the space through which sound passes increases or
decreases energy at different frequencies.
๎€โ€œresonance characteristicsโ€
The spectra of speech sounds are shaped by the way people configure their tracts as
resonators.
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