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Chapter 2

PSYB51H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Vitreous Body, Refractive Error, Aqueous Humour

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Matthias Niemeier

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Chapter 2 Definitions
wave: an oscillation that travels through a medium by transferring energy from one
particle or point to another without causing any permanent displacement of the
photon: a quantum of visible light or other form of electromagnetic radiation
demonstrating both particle and wave properties
absorb: to take up light, noise, or energy and not transmit it at all
scatter: to disperse light in an irregular fashion
reflect: to redirect something that strikes a surface- especially light, sound, or heat-
usually back toward its point of origin
transmit: to convey something (ex. light) from one place to thing to another
refract: 1. to alter the course of a wave of energy that passes into something from another
medium, as water does to light entering it from the air. 2. to measure the degree of
refraction in a lens or eye
image: a picture or likeness
cornea: the transparent “window” into the eyeball
transparent: allowing light to pass through with no interruption so that objects on the
other side can be clearly seen
aqueous humor: the watery fluid in the anterior chamber of the eye
crystalline lens: the lens inside the eye that enables changing focus
pupil: the dark circular opening at the center of the iris in the eye, where light enters the
iris: the colored part of the eye, consisting of a muscular diaphragm surrounding the pupil
and regulating the light entering the eye by expanding and contracting the pupil
vitreous humor: the transparent fluid that fills the vitreous chamber in the posterior part
of the eye
retina: a light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye that contains rods and cones,
which receive an image from the lens and send it to the brain through the optic nerve
accommodation: the process by which the eye changes its focus (in which the lens gets
fatter as gaze is directed toward nearer objects)
presbyopia: literally “old sight”. The loss of near vision because of insufficient
cataract: opacity of the crystalline lens
emmetropia: the condition in which there is no refractive error, because the refractive
power of the eye is perfectly matched to the length of the eyeball
myopia: a common condition in which light entering the eye is focused in front of the
retina and distant objects cannot be seen sharply
hyperopia: a common condition in which light entering the eye is focused behind the
astigmatism: a visual defect caused by the unequal curving of one or more of the
refractive surfaces of the eye, usually the cornea
transduced: referring to the conversion from one form of energy (ex. light) to another (ex.
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