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Chapter 4

PSYB51H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Principles Of Grouping, Illusory Contours, Necker Cube


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB51H3
Professor
Matthias Niemeier
Chapter
4

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Chapter 4 Definitions
middle (midlevel) vision: a loosely defined stage of visual processing that comes after
basic features have been extracted from the image (early vision) and before object
recognition and scene understanding (high-level vision)
illusory contour: a contour that is perceived, even though nothing changed from one side
of the contour to the other in the image
structuralism: a school of thought believing that complex objects or perceptions could be
understood by analysis of the components
Gestalt: in german, literally “form”. In perception, the name of a school of thought
stressing that the perceptual whole could be greater than the apparent sum of parts
Gestalt grouping rules: a set of rules describing which elements in an image will appear
to group together. The original list was assembled by members of the gestalt school
of thought
good continuation: a gestalt grouping rule stating that two elements will tend to group
together if they seem to lie on the same contour
texture segmentation: carving an image into regions of common texture properties.
similarity: a gestalt grouping rule stating that the tendency of two features to group
together will increase as the similarity between them increases
proximity: a gestalt grouping rule stating that the tendency of two features to group
together will increase as the distance between them deceases
parallelism: a rule for figure-ground assignment stating that parallel contours are likely to
belong to the same figure
symmetry: a rule for figure- ground assignment stating that symmetrical regions are more
likely to be seen as figure (?)
common region: a gestalt grouping rule stating that two features will tend to group
together if they appear to be part of the same larger region
connectedness: a gestalt grouping rule stating that two items will tend to group together
if they are connected
ambiguous figure: a visual stimulus that gives rise to two or more interpretations of its
identity or structure
Necker cube: an outline that is perceptually bi-stable. Unlike the situation with most
stimuli, two interpretations continually battle for perceptual dominance
accidental viewpoint: a viewing position that produced some regularity in the visual
image that is not present in the world (ex. the sides of two independent objects lining
up perfectly)
figure-ground assignment: the process of determining that some regions of an image
belong to a foreground object (figure) and other regions are part of the background
(ground)
surroundedness: a rule for figure-ground assignment stating that if one region is entirely
stating that if one region is entirely surrounded by another, it is likely that the
surrounded region is the figure
relatability: the degree to which two line segments appear to be part of the same contour
heuristic: a mental shortcut
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