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Chapter 10

Chapter 10

2 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB51H3
Professor
Matthias Niemeier

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Chapter 10: Hearing in the Environment
Sound Localization
Having 2 ears crucial for determining auditor y locations
2 potential types of infor mation for determining source of sound:
oEven though sound travels very fast, pressure wave will not ar r ive at both ears at same time
Sounds ar r ive sooner, albeit very slightly, at ear closer to source
oIntensity of sound greater at ear closer to source
Interaural Time Dif ference (ITD)
If source to the left, sound will reach left ear first, if source to right, sound reach right ear first
oCan tell whether sound coming from r ight or left by determining which ear receives sound f irst
Azimuth: describe locations on imaginary circle that extends around us- front, back, left, right in
hor izontal plane
Medial superior olives (MSOs): first places in auditory system where inputs from both ears converge
Interaural Level Dif ference (ILD)
Sounds more intense at ear closer to s ound source because head partially blocks sound pressure wave
from reaching opposite ear
Properties of ILD relevant for auditor y localization similar to ITD:
oSounds more intense at ear closer to sound source, less intense at ear further away from source
oILD largest at 90 and -90 degrees, nonexistent at 0 degrees (directly in front) and 180 degrees
(directly behind)
oBetween these 2 extremes, ILD generally correlates with angle of sound source, but because of
irregular shape of head, correlation not quite as great as it is with ITDs
Neurons sensitive to intensity difference between 2 ears found in lateral superior olives (L SOs): receives
both excitatory and inhibitory inputs
oExcitatory connections to LSOs come from ipsilateral ear
oInhibitory inputs comes from contralateral ear via medial nucleus of trapezoid body (MNTB)
When sound more intense at one ear, connections from that ear are both better at exciting LSO neurons
on that side and better at inhibiting LSO neurons on other side
Cones of Confusion
Region of positions in space where all sounds produce the same time and level (intensity) differences
Pinna and Head Cues
Pinnae serve to funnel sound energy into ear canal
Because of complex shapes, pinnae funnel certain sound frequencies more efficiently that others
Head-related transfer function (HRTF): function that describes how pinna, ear canal, head, torso change
intensity of sounds with different frequencies that ar r ive at each ear from different locations in space
Auditory Distance Perception
Relative intensity of sound- because sounds become less intense with greater distance, listeners have
little diff iculty perceiving relative distances of 2 identical sound sources
oMay be false
Inverse-square law: effectiveness of relative intensity decreases substantially as distance increases
because sound intensity decreases
oWhen sound source close to listener, small difference in distance can produce relatively large
intensity difference
Spectral composition- when sound sources are far away, higher frequencies decreases in energy more
than lower frequencies as sound waves travel from source to ear
Sound that ar r ives at ear is combination of direct energy (arr ives directly from source) and reverberant
energy (bounced off surfaces in environment)
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Description
Chapter 10: Hearing in the Environment Sound Localization Having 2 ears crucial for determining auditory locations 2 potential types of information for determining source of sound: o Even though sound travels very fast, pressure wave will not arrive at both ears at same time Sounds arrive sooner, albeit very slightly, at ear closer to source o Intensity of sound greater at ear closer to source Interaural Time Difference (ITD) If source to the left, sound will reach left ear first, if source to right, sound reach right ear first o Can tell whether sound coming from right or left by determining which ear receives sound first Azimuth: describe locations on imaginary circle that extends around us- front, back, left, right in horizontal plane Medial superior olives (MSOs): first places in auditory system where inputs from both ears converge Interaural Level Difference (ILD) Sounds more intense at ear closer to sound source because head partially blocks sound pressure wave from reaching opposite ear Properties of ILD relevant for auditory localization similar to ITD: o Sounds more intense at ear closer to sound source, less intense at ear further away from source o ILD largest at 90 and -90 degrees, nonexistent at 0 degrees (directly in front) and 180 degrees (directly behind) o Between these 2 extremes, ILD generally correlates with angle of sound source, but because of irregular shape of head, correlation not quite as great as it is with ITDs Neurons sensitive to intensity difference between 2 ears found in lateral superior olives (LSOs): receives both excitatory and inhibitory inpu
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