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Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Notes

Course Code
George Cree

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Chapter 12 – Language
The Nature of Language
β€’The understanding of language is relatively automatic. As we hear or read a sentence, we
focus on its meaning and comprehend it by using the information stored in our long term
β€’Psycholinguistics refers to the study of comprehension, production and acquisition of
Levels of Language Representation
β€’A sentence is composed of many different pieces and these different pieces are referred to as
different levels of language representation
β€’Grammar refers to the rules of usage but in linguistics grammar refers to the sum of
knowledge that someone has about the structure of his/her language. Most of the grammatical
knowledge is unconscious but it underlies our ability to speak or comprehend a language
β€’Various levels of language representation explain how we understand sentences. These levels
1.Discourse level refers to a coherent group of written or spoken sentences.
This level mentally represents the meaning of an sentence that goes beyond
the meaning of individual words.
In this representation, the two most important parts are the subject and the
The relationship between the words is explained in terms of a propositional
representation which relates the action, the one doing the action and the
thing that is acted on.
Discourse level links the sentence to the context in which it occurs and links it
to information in the long term memory. This linkage can help us remember
how things work in a particular situation e.g. the last time we ate at x fast food,
the food was bad – notice we performed the action of eating the object food
and the incident occurred last time which was then stored in our long term

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2.Syntax level specifies the relationships between the types of words in a sentence (e.g.
between noun and verb)
Syntax represents the structure of a sentence and it is believed to be a part of
our mental representation of sentences as well. It builds on the doer, action
and the object
Representing the syntax of a sentence uses a phrase structure tree which is a
diagram of a sentence that illustrates its linear hierarchical structure. It breaks
down the components of a sentence.
It is believed that we build a mental representation of the tree’s hierarchical
representation of the word relationships and likewise comprehend the meaning
of the sentence.
At the level of syntax comprehenders make a decision about the word order. A
sentence can have the same content but different syntax based on the word
Patients with damage to the left hemisphere may have aphasia which refers
to language or speech disruption. Aphasia can manifest itself in various ways
and one manifestation that involves disruption of syntactic level of
representation is called non-fluent aphasia or Broca’s aphasia. (Broca’s ara
is the left frontal area)
Patients of Broca’s aphasia have difficulty relating the discourse and the
syntactical level of representation. The difficulty is not related to the meanings
of the words – these patients do understand the meanings of the words but fail
to understand the relationship among the words in the sentence (they may
shuffle around the words of a sentence while comprehending/producing).
Since these patients have long term memory of objects, usually they can relate
the doer, action and object using their logic from memory.
3.Word and morpheme level; at this level the meanings of the words are encoded:
Morphemes are the building blocks of words i.e. the smallest unit of meaning
in a language. Words can be composed of single or multiple morphemes e.g.
burned/noodles is composed of two morphemes i.e. burn and –ed or noodle
and –s
Bound morphemes are the plural and past tense forms that attach onto other
morphemes – they are usually prefixes or suffixes

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Free morphemes are the single words that can stand alone.
Content morphemes are the words that carry meaning but do not provide
much information on the sentence structure
Function words or function morphemes e.g. the or –ed ending type of words
convey less meaning but carry information about relationships among words
and about the syntactic structure of a sentence. Function morphemes link the
level of word and syntax
Patients of Broca’s aphasia who have difficulty with syntax also have trouble
perceiving and producing function morphemes. Their speech lacks function
Patients of Wernicke’s aphasia or Fluent aphasia have a different problem
at the level of word and morphemes. These patients have grammatical speech
with nouns, verbs and other parts of speech but they cannot produce content
morphemes properly and speech ends up being nonsensical. These patients
also have difficulty comprehending content morphemes and thus have very
little understanding of what is being said to them.
The difference in Broca’s and Wernicke’s aphasia emphasizes that language is
organized at different levels within the brain. The impairment at one level such
as disruption of functional morphemes suffered by Broca’s aphasics can lead
to trouble at other levels as well e.g. in interpreting the sentence syntax which
can then lead to difficulty in understanding the meaning of a sentence
4.Phonemes level
Phonemes are the smallest distinguishable units of speech sounds that make a
morpheme in a language.
We can alternatively use alphabets instead of phonemes as the smallest unit of
morphemes but we don’t since different languages differ in writing, different
way of writing may have the same pronunciation or people may differ in
pronunciation themselves. Phonemes help provide a degree of universality
Phonetic alphabets are universal symbols for speech sounds that can
represent all languages independent of how they are written or spelled. These
symbols merely represent how the word should sound
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