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Chapter 6

Chapter 6

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB57H3
Professor
Gabriela Ilie

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Chapter 6
Some psychologist believe that there is only 1 kind of memory storage but
different kinds of processing take place in that store
Levels of processing view
Levels of processing theory of memory: memory is though to depend not on
how long material is stored on the kind of storage in which the material is held,
but on the encoding of information to be remembered
oRetention and coding of information depend on the perceptual anlysis
done on the material at encoding
Craik and Tulving: presented with a series of questions about particular words
surprise memory test
ostudy session: word was preceded by a question participants asked to
respond to question as quickly as possible without mention of memory test
any learning that occurred would be incidental learning
oThree kind of questions asked
Whether the words was in capital letters
If the word rhymed with another word
Asked if it would fit into a particular sequence
oEach kind of question was different kind of processing
Physical processing: look at typeface
Acoustic processing: read the word and think on sound
Semantic processing: evaluate word meaning
Depth greatest for third kind, and least for first kind
oSurprise memory test processed semantically remembered best then those
processed acoustically
Alternative explanation: Participants spent more time answering
questions about sentences than capital letters
Bower and Karlin: studying memory for faces
oRate face for honest deep semantic processing vs. gender rate
(superficial) – better memory for honesty
But hard to define level and depth
Elaboration of material could aid recall
oComplicated sentence calls to a mind a richer idea
oSentence that specified more precisely the relation of a word to context
found likely to increase probability of recall target word
Dichotic listening task: material in unattended channel is not remembered, since it
only received shallow processing, which results in poor retention
Baddeley: without more precise and independent definition of depth of
processing, theoryw as limited
oUnder certain conditions, greater recall of information was acoustic than
semantically
oModal memory can described levels of processing
Reconstructive nature of memory
Bartlett: real world memory – world knowledge and schemata
oFrameworks for organizing information
At retrieval: knowledge and organization is used to reconstruct the material
Serial reproduction: recall on more than one occasion
oStudy of what is remembered and misremembered – distorted/reordered
Participants unintentionally introduce distortions during recall to make material
more rational and coherent from their own of view – schemata
Schema: large unit of organized information used for presenting concepts,
situations, events and action in memory
Bartlett: memory as an active process that encodes and retrieves information to
make sense – is not stored unchanged
oDifferent retelling of story is that people conform it to own expectations
Autobiographical memory
Describeing memories from every day life in personal past
Linton: study own events in life recall events in own life onto a 4-6 index card
and dated with rating
oAt the end of a month, gather and randomly sort them into 14 piles for
testing through the year
12 for the year, 2 for 2 and 3 years after the events
oShe only needed to recognize events and date them she did not forget
many of the items real world memories are more durable than lab
experiments
Problem solving strategies to arrive at a date
oLook for markers – reconstruct
Brewer: 8 undergraduate students tagged with a beeper to go off randomly and
asked to report location, actions, and thoughts and to do a rating scale
oCould tag private which may lead to undersampling of some events
oAdvantage over Linton: events were random, not memorable
oOverall, good retention from his participants – recognize 60% of events
Memory was better for actions than thoughts, and better for
memorable events over random ones
Unique locations and actions were better than frequent
oMore distinct = more likely to be remembered
Flashbulb Memories
Phenomenon where people recall personal circumstance at the time they heard or
witnessed an unexpected or very significant event

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Description
Chapter 6Some psychologist believe that there is only 1 kind of memory storage but different kinds of processing take place in that storeLevels of processing viewLevels of processing theory of memory memory is though to depend not on how long material is stored on the kind of storage in which the material is held but on the encoding of information to be rememberedoRetention and coding of information depend on the perceptual anlysis done on the material at encodingCraikand Tulving presented with a series of questions about particular wordssurprise memory testostudy session word was preceded by a questionparticipants asked to respond to question as quickly as possible without mention of memory testany learning that occurred would be incidental learningoThree kind of questions askedWhether the words was in capital lettersIf the word rhymed with another wordAsked if it would fit into a particular sequenceoEach kind of question was different kind of processingPhysical processing look at typefaceAcoustic processing read the word and think on soundSemantic processing evaluate word meaningDepth greatest for third kind and least for first kindoSurprise memory test processed semantically remembered best then those processed acousticallyAlternative explanation Participants spent more time answering questions about sentences than capital lettersBower and Karlin studying memory for faces oRate face for honestdeep semantic processing vs gender rate superficialbetter memory for honestyBut hard to define level and depthElaboration of material could aid recalloComplicated sentence calls to a mind a richer ideaoSentence that specified more precisely the relation of a word to context found likely to increase probability of recall target wordDichotic listening task material in unattended channel is not remembered since it only received shallow processing which results in poor retentionBaddeley without more precise and independent definition of depth of processing theoryw as limitedoUnder certain conditions greater recall of information was acoustic than semantically
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