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PSYB57H3 (376)
George Cree (102)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Textbook Notes

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George Cree

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PSYB57-10W-W03 - Attention Define attention and understand how it involves selecting some information for further processing while inhibiting the processing of other information (pp. 103-104). - Attention is the process that, at a given moment, enhances some information and inhibits other information. Understand the difference between failures of selection in space and failures of selection in time (pp. 105-112). Failure of selection in space: unable to process all information given at once. - Change Blindness: failure to detect changes in the physical aspects of a scene. (eg. ask pedestrian direction two people carrying a door walks between change person notice?) - Change Deafness: miss changes between voices in an auditory scene - we select particular information to process and ignore other information present. - changes of central interest can be noticed much faster than marginal interest - Our attention is driven and controlled via top-down processing, which and change in a flexible and dynamic manner. This allows attention to extract critical information from a flood of input. - Top-down processing can be overridden by sensory event (bottom-up attentional processing) (eg. glass crash) Failure of selection in time: unable to process all information given in a rapid stream. - eg. the ability to detect T1 and T2. 1. Participants did well when only required to report seeing T1. 2. When required to report seeing T1 and T2, participants failed to report T2 when it appeared between 100-500 milliseconds after T1. Results bettered when the appearance interval of each letter was lengthened. - Attentional blink: short period of time which incoming information is not registered. - Repetition blindness: failure to detect the later appearance of a stimulus when the stimuli are presented in a rapid sequence. - second occurrence is assimilated o the first, only one event is registered Compare focused attention and divided attention (pp. 107-108). Focus Attention: concentration on a single source of input. Divided Attention: concentration on more than one source of input. - Every task has a different required mental effort, when there is an insufficient amount of mental effort in the pool, failures will be more frequent. Explain how bottleneck theories area a source of limitation for attention, and how dual-task interference is observed (pp. 112-113). Bottleneck: restriction on the amount of information that can be processed at once; certain critical mental operations have to be carried out sequentially. Dual-task interference: decrease in performance (reaction time accuracy) during the attempt to perform two task at once Response bottleneck: when one try to select between two possible responses to even a sole sensory stimulus. (eg. holding a glass on right hand, should I put down the glass to grab a sandwich, or should I grab it with my left hand?) Understand the difference between automatic and controlled processes of attention (p. 115). example: driving car + switching the radio channel - controlled tasks can become automatic with practice over time. www.notesolution.com
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