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Chapter 4

PSYB57H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Topographic Map, Property List, Artificial Neural Network

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George Cree

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PSYB57-10W-W04 Representation and Knowledge in Long-Term Memory
Define what knowledge is and how it leads to inferences during perception (pp. 148-151).
Knowledge is often thought of as constituting particular bodies of facts, techniques, and procedures that
cultures develops.
We assign a perceived entity to a category, categorization allow us to draw inferences to allow us to
derive information from knowledge of that group.
Language requires knowledge.
Discuss how a representation must be intentional and carry information (pp. 152-153).
Knowledge relies on representations.
-representation is a physical state that stands for an object, event or concept. It also carries
information of what they stand for.
Intentional Criterion: A representation must be constructed intentionally to stand for something else.
-brain is designed to store information even at unconscious levels.
Information-carrying criterion: A representation must carry information about what it stands for.
-the ability to recall details
-use these detailed memory to categorize new objects
Identify the four possible formats for representations (pp. 153-166).
1. Format: the types of its code, how elements make up a representation, how these elements are
arranged. Also relies on characteristics of the process that operate on them to extract information.
2. Modality Specific: Representation make use of perceptual or motor systems
3. Amodal: Representation residing outside the perceptual and motor modalities
4. Content: the information it conveys.
Understand how images are modality-specific, and what neurological evidence is available to
support that claim (pp. 153-160).
Visual information from images are stored like photos that are captured by a digital camera.
An image has three elements, which taken together determine its content: a spatiotemporal window,
storage units, and stored information.
1. spatiotemporal window, scenes are captured one at a time, and are limited to an area (window).
2. storage units, can be compared with the pixels of a digital camera.
3. storage information, collective information specifies the content of the image.
Pattern of brain activation on brains surface roughl depicts the shape of the stimulus.
- pattern of activation forms a topographical map

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Define what a feature record is and how it is meaningful (pp. 160-162).
Meaningful entity: an object or event that plays an important role in an organisms survival and pursuit of
Features: a meaningful sensory aspect of a perceived stimulus. (eg. frog. bug. small. moving)
Compare the three types of amodal symbols: frames, semantic networks, and property lists
(pp. 163-165).
Frame: a structure that specifies a set of relations that link objects in the environment.
Semantic Network: represents essentially the same relations and obects in diagram form
Property list: names the characteristics of the entities belonging to a category. (cake, frosting, candle)
Understand the relationship between statistical patterns and simulation (pp. 165-167).
Statistical Pattern: eg. 1001101001010 each representing a neuron/ population of neurons.
Simulation: reactivates statistical pattern to retrieve image/taste that is no longer present.
Define what category knowledge is and be able to explain why it has inferential power (pp.
Category knowledge develops first form establish representations of a categorys individual members and
second from integrating those representations. (eg.cake ! statistical patter ! common 1/0 !
It has inferential power because by putting an individual into a category, we are able to activate our
knowledge of that category. (eg. cake ! ingredients ! taste ! texture ! if left over)
Understand the multimodal nature of category knowledge (p. 170).
Eg. Cakes can be tasted, smelled, touched, and acted on, but guitars can be heard, touched, seen and
acted on and not tasted nor smelled.
Depending on the category, different profile of information across the six modalities of vision, audition,
action, touch, taste, and smell is more important.
A categorys representation can also include emotion and motivation. (eg. cake - positive; restaurant -
hungry; pillow - feeling sleepy)
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