PSYB57-10W-W05 - Encoding and Retrieval from Long-Term Memory
Define long-term memory, and understand the divisions between declarative (explicit) and
nodeclarative (implicit) memory (pp. 193-195).
Memory: the internal repository of stored information.
Long term memory: information that is acquired in the course of an experience and that persists so that
it can be retrieved long after the experience is past.
2 General types of long term memory. 1. Declarative/Explicit and Nondeclarative (Implicit)
1. Declarative Memory consist episodic memory and semantic memory
a. episodic memory: memory of events
b. semantic memory: knowledge about things in the world (facts)
- Tests that assess declarative memory are termed explicit memory tests
- Highly flexible: multiple piece of information ! uniform form
2. Nondeclarative memory: Nonconscious forms of long-term memory hat are expressed as change in
behaviour without any conscious recollection. Tests termed implicit memory tests.
- test measures performance and not description of the content of memory.
- do not require medial temporal lobe structures that are important to declarative memory
Explain the case of H.M., and discuss how it relates to the discovery of the dissociations
between different forms of memory (pp. 195-201, 211-214).
5 yrs old ! bicycle accident ! unconscious for 5 mins
7 yrs old ! minor epileptic episodes ! ultimately progressed ! major seizures (could not be controlled
27 yrs old ! bilateral removal of he medial temporal lobes
-hippocampus, amygdala and much of his Medial Temporal Cortices were removed
-seizure under control
-devastating loss of memory
-LT before surgery was preserved (both semantic and episodic)
-suffers severe anterograde amnesia (unable to remember information after brain
-HM can remember a short list of number for 30 seconds.
-shows that working memory does not depend on medial temporal lobe structure.
-working memory: information that is maintained over a period of seconds or minutes.
Identify the structures involved in declarative memory, namely those of the medial temporal
lobe (pp. 196-197).
Episodic and semantic memory depends on a particular set of brain structures in the medial temporal
Medial temporal lobes are not necessary for all types of LTM (eg. HM. “mirror tracing”) (non declarative)
Distinguish between anterograde and retrograde amnesia (pp. 198-199).
Anterograde Amnesia: inability consciously to remember information encountered after brain damage.
Applies to both episodic and semantic knowledge.
Retrograde Amnesia: the forgetting of events that occurred before the damage to the brain.
-HM’s Retrograde Amnesia is temporally graded: the closer an event had occurred to his surgery,
the more likely it is to have been forgotten.
-shows that memory don’t permanently depend on the MTL, since he can still remember
events from childhood.
Describe the process of encoding and how elaboration and distributed practice helps (pp.
Memory: Encoding, Consolidation, Retrieval
Encoding: various processes by which information is transformed into a memory representation
-what strengthens the process?? Our viewpoint, our elaboration of the meaning
- Elaborations: interpreting information, connecting it with other information, and mulling it over.
-Retrieve information consciously, practice information in a spread out timeframe
Discuss how attention plays a role in memory (pp. 202-203).
Better attention = Stronger encoding
Explain the levels of processing theory (pp. 203-205).
Level of processing theory: there are various aspects of any given stimulus that can be attended and
-ranging fro “shallow” level of perceptual analysis ! “deep” level of semantic analysis
Episodic memory benefits form “deep” (elaborative) processing.
Incidental learning: leaning that is not resulted by purposeful attempt, but as a by-product of performing
Compare and contrast transfer appropriate processing, encoding specificity principle,
encoding variability, context dependency, and state dependency (pp. 205, 211, 217-218).
Transfer appropriate processing: the process at encoding is most effective to the extent that that
processing overlaps with the processing to be performed at retrieval.
Encoding specificity principle: our ability to remember a stimulus depends on the similarity between the
way the stimulus is processed at encoding and the way it is processed at test. (eg. bank ! river)
Describe how the generation effect and the spacing effect enhance encoding (pp. 208-211).
The generation effect: where episodic learning is better if we can generate the target information from
memory compared to when the information is presented to us by another person.
-more likely to remember information you retrieve or generate (during study) than information you
simply receive and attempt to memorize.
The Spacing Effect: where encoding across multiple study trials with the same information is optimal
following a particular pattern of temporal sequencing of the study trials.
-mass practice: many trials with the same stimulus are undertaken without interruption
-distributed practice: the trials with the same stimulus are separated b other stimuli
Encoding variability, the encoding of different aspects of a stimulus as different features are selected for
encoding in subsequent encounters. A stimulus is more likely to be remembered when it is processed in
different ways across study trails.
Describe why binding is important for memory (p. 211).
Binding takes place in the Medial Temporal Lobe, receive highly processed input form many brain areas.
Information about face, name, context converged. The hippocampus binds these multiple features into an
integrated memory representation.
-Right hippocampus ! nonverbal episodic memory
-Left hippocampus ! verbal episodic memory
Psyb57-10w-w05 - encoding and retrieval from long-term memory. Define long-term memory, and understand the divisions between declarative (explicit) and nodeclarative (implicit) memory (pp. Long term memory: information that is acquired in the course of an experience and that persists so that it can be retrieved long after the experience is past. Declarative/explicit and nondeclarative (implicit: declarative memory consist episodic memory and semantic memory, episodic memory: memory of events, semantic memory: knowledge about things in the world (facts) Tests that assess declarative memory are termed explicit memory tests. Highly flexible: multiple piece of information uniform form: nondeclarative memory: nonconscious forms of long-term memory hat are expressed as change in behaviour without any conscious recollection. Test measures performance and not description of the content of memory. Do not require medial temporal lobe structures that are important to declarative memory. Explain the case of h. m. , and discuss how it relates to the discovery of the dissociations between different forms of memory (pp.