Describe the process of encoding and how elaboration and distributed practice helps (pp.
Memory: Encoding, Consolidation, Retrieval
Encoding: various processes by which information is transformed into a memory representation
-what strengthens the process?? Our viewpoint, our elaboration of the meaning
- Elaborations: interpreting information, connecting it with other information, and mulling it over.
-Retrieve information consciously, practice information in a spread out timeframe
Discuss how attention plays a role in memory (pp. 202-203).
Better attention = Stronger encoding
Explain the levels of processing theory (pp. 203-205).
Level of processing theory: there are various aspects of any given stimulus that can be attended and
-ranging fro “shallow” level of perceptual analysis ! “deep” level of semantic analysis
Episodic memory benefits form “deep” (elaborative) processing.
Incidental learning: leaning that is not resulted by purposeful attempt, but as a by-product of performing
Compare and contrast transfer appropriate processing, encoding specificity principle,
encoding variability, context dependency, and state dependency (pp. 205, 211, 217-218).
Transfer appropriate processing: the process at encoding is most effective to the extent that that
processing overlaps with the processing to be performed at retrieval.
Encoding specificity principle: our ability to remember a stimulus depends on the similarity between the
way the stimulus is processed at encoding and the way it is processed at test. (eg. bank ! river)
Describe how the generation effect and the spacing effect enhance encoding (pp. 208-211).
The generation effect: where episodic learning is better if we can generate the target information from
memory compared to when the information is presented to us by another person.
-more likely to remember information you retrieve or generate (during study) than information you
simply receive and attempt to memorize.
The Spacing Effect: where encoding across multiple study trials with the same information is optimal
following a particular pattern of temporal sequencing of the study trials.
-mass practice: many trials with the same stimulus are undertaken without interruption
-distributed practice: the trials with the same stimulus are separated b other stimuli
Encoding variability, the encoding of different aspects of a stimulus as different features are selected for
encoding in subsequent encounters. A stimulus is more likely to be remembered when it is processed in
different ways across study trails.
Describe why binding is important for memory (p. 211).
Binding takes place in the Medial Temporal Lobe, receive highly processed input form many brain areas.
Information about face, name, context converged. The hippocampus binds these multiple features into an
integrated memory representation.
-Right hippocampus ! nonverbal episodic memory
-Left hippocampus ! verbal episodic memory