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Chapter 7

PSYB57H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Stimulus Modality, Apoptosis, Cellular Differentiation

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Dwayne Pare

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Memory and Cognition- Chapter 7 Imagery
Memory and Imagery
Paivio’s Dual- Coding Theory
-interest in imagery began in 1960
-Alan Paivio dual-coding theory: humans have two systems to represent events, verbal
and non verbal. An event can be described in words using the verbal system or it can
be imaging without words using the non verbal system. System being used depends
on the nature of the information.
-Information arrives as either non verbal, or verbal form. After being picked up by the
sensory systems, verbal information is represented in the verbal system and non
verbal information in the non-verbal system. Units making up the verbal system are
called logogens: contains information underlying our use of a particular word. Units
that make up the non-verbal system are called imagens: contain the information that
generates mental images. Imagens correspond to the natural objects, holistic parts of
objects and natural groupings of objects. A variety of related mental images can be
generated from imagens. ex. imagens: imagine a group of people, one person in the
group, the face of one person, their nose. Logogens: when you listen to a sentence,
words are not present all at once, instead come one after the other.
-information in one system can give rise to a process in the other system. Verbal
description can elicit an image of it, and an image can elicit a description.
-Imagery (Paivios sense): the ease with which something such as a word can elicit a
mental image.
-1971 theory: words with a high degree of imagery- tend tot be concrete (table)
whereas words that don’t easily elicit a mental image tend to be abstract (purpose).
Concreteness: the degree to which a word refers to something that can be
experienced by the senses i.e heard, felt, smelled, tasted
-emotions are not concrete but still can elicit vivid mental imagery.
-ex. concrete: coffee, pencil, string, chair. abstract: idea, virtue, event, theory
Research Related to Dual Coding Theory
-Paivios earliest studies focused on the role of imagery and learning.
-four groups of participants each learned 16 pairs of words. Each group of learned a
different kind of stimulus- response pair. first group: concrete. second group: first word
of each pair concrete, second abstract. third group: first word was abstract, second
word concrete. fourth: both abstract. Task showed that learning is best when both
words are concrete and worst when both are abstract.
-According to dual-coding theory a concrete word can be coded both verbal and non
verbal systems, whereas an abstract word will tend to be coded only by the verbal
system because it is not likely to elicit much of an image. The fact that a concrete word
is coded in two systems means that it is more easily available to memory than an
abstract word that is coded in only the verbal system.
-Paivio hypothesized that stimulus concreteness would be particularly important in
learning pairs of words. Abstract words would be less effective cues because they are
not coded imaginally.
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