Chapter 1 Textbook

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Published on 8 Mar 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB57H3
Professor
Cognitive Psychology: History, Methods, and Paradigms
Chapter 1
Influences on the Study of Cognition
Cognitive Psychology
How people acquire, store, transform, use, and communicate information
Cognitive Processes
Attention mentally focusing on some
stimulus
Perception interpreting sensory information
to yield meaningful information
Pattern recognition classifying a stimulus
into a known category
Memory storage facilities and retrieval
processes of cognition
Recognition familiarity
Recall retrieval of information from the past
Reasoning
Problem Solving
Knowledge Representation accumulation
of knowledge over time
Language communication
Decision Making how to deal with a
situation
Empiricism we learn from experiences
Blank slate/tabula rasa
Empiricists recognize individual differences in genetics but emphasize the malleability of nature
Believe people are the way they are, and what they are capable of because of what they were
taught in the past
oMental association of two ideas
Locke believes that two distinct ideas or experiences have nothing to do with
each other
These ideas could be joined in the mind because they occurred at the
same time
Environment plays a powerful role in determining ones intellectual abilities
Nativism certain skills and abilities are hardwired into the brain
We have innate beliefs (the mind is born with ideas/knowledge)
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Cognitive Psychology: History, Methods, and Paradigms
Chapter 1
Short-term memory is a hard-wired function that is attributed to innate structures of the human
mind
Is not learned, formed, or created as a result of experience
We are a machine
Structuralism
Wilhelm Wundt set up the first institute for research in experimental psychology
“Science of mindand “mental elements”
oDiscover the laws and principles that explain our immediate conscious experiences
Wundt was devoted to the study of how systematically varying stimuli would affect or produce
different mental states (Principles of Physiological Psychology)
James Baldwin set up the first experimental laboratory in Canada and was famous for his
work on the mental development of children
oWas the first to conduct controlled experiments with children (his own daughter)
Introspection “soul searching
oDescribing ones own conscious experiences
oConscious thought is a result of a combination of sensations:
Mode (visual, auditory, tactile)
Quality (colour, shape, texture)
Intensity
Duration
Structuralism focus on the mind is the elemental components as opposed to why the mind
works the way it does
Functionalism
William James did very little research, and focused on psychological findings and relevance to
everyday life
Psychology is the explanation of our experiences
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Cognitive Psychology: History, Methods, and Paradigms
Chapter 1
Why does the mind work the way it does?
James considered “habitas the “flywheel of society”
oA basic mechanism to keep our behaviour within bounds
oHabits are inevitable and powerful
oPeople should take care of bad habits and develop good ones
Darwinian evolutionary theory
Mental phenomena can be assessed in real-life situations
Psychologists should study organisms in whole, real-life tasks
Behaviourism
Psychological phenomena can be explained by observable stimuli and responses
Reject techniques such as introspection because consciousness, believing, understanding,
and remembering can be subjective, misrepresented and misleading
o“Banish mental language
Behaviour has a physiological cause
Watson when people think, their tongue and larynx move slightly
Psychologists began to develop more testable hypotheses and theories
oStricter research protocols
Skinner believed that “mentalistic” entities (images, sensations, thought) should not be
excluded simply because they are difficult to study and are no different from behavioural events
and activities
oRejected the thought that mental representations were merely internal copies of external
stimuli
oAnimals also have goals and expectations
Gestalt Psychology
Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Kohler
Configurationor “shape
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Document Summary

Cognitive psychology: how people acquire, store, transform, use, and communicate information. Nativism certain skills and abilities are hardwired into the brain: we have innate beliefs (the mind is born with ideas/knowledge) www. notesolution. com. Chapter 1: short-term memory is a hard-wired function that is attributed to innate structures of the human mind. Is not learned, formed, or created as a result of experience: we are a machine. Structuralism: wilhelm wundt set up the first institute for research in experimental psychology. Introspection soul searching : describing one"s own conscious experiences, conscious thought is a result of a combination of sensations:  duration: structuralism focus on the mind is the elemental components as opposed to why the mind works the way it does. Functionalism: william james did very little research, and focused on psychological findings and relevance to everyday life, psychology is the explanation of our experiences www. notesolution. com. Gestalt psychology: max wertheimer, kurt koffka, wolfgang kohler.