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Chapter 6

chapter 6

Course Code
Gabriela Ilie

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Chapter 6
Argue that there is only one kind of memory storage, but different
kinds of info processing take place within that store.
Levels-of-processing theory of memory
Memory depends not on how long material is stored or on the kind of
storage in which the material is held, but on the initial encoding of the info
to be remembered; focuses on the way material is encoded.
The fundamental assumption—retention and coding of info depend on
the kind of perceptual analysis done on the material at encoding.
Improvement in memory comes not from rehearsal and repetition but from
greater depth of analysis of the material
Experiment: Craik and Tulving
Present w/ a series of questions abt particular words, later give a surprise
memory test.
Incidental learning (any learning happened to occur,
3 kinds of questions
1) Capital letter?Typeface (physical processing)
2) Rhymed w/ another word? —Sound (acoustic processing)
3) Word fit in the sentence? —Meaning (semantic processing)
Depth of the processing needed is greatest.
Words processed semantically were remembered best.

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Perhaps its because Ps spent more time answering questions abt
sentences than other questions.
Words fit into sentences showed poorer recall for simple
sentences than complex sentences.
The elaboration of material could also aid recall.
Sentences that specified more precisely the relation of the
target word to the context were more likely to recall the target
View memory as a continuum of processes.
e.g. the levels-of-processing approach can account for recalling
material from unattended channel in dichotic listening tasks.
Material not analyzed for meaning receives only “shallow
processing, which results in poor retention.
Memory for faces
Ps who rated faces for honesty (requires deep semantic processing) showed
better memory than rated faces according to gender.
1) W/o a more precise and independent definition of “depth of
processing, the usefulness of the theory was very limited.
2) Under certain condition, greater recall of info processed
acoustically than semantically.
3) Modal view of memory could explain the typical levels-of-
processing findings.
Frederick Bartlett
In the real world memory largely uses world knowledge and schemata--
frameworks for organizing info.

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At retrieval time, this knowledge and organizational info is used to
reconstruct the material.
Used the method of serial reproduction: ask Ps to recall the
stories on more than one occasion.
Over time the same persons recall becomes more distorted.
Ps unintentionally introduced distortions during recall to make the material
more rational and more coherent from their own point of view, or schemata.
Rejected the idea of LTM as a warehouse where material is
stored unchanged until retrieval. He saw memory as an active
and often inaccurate process that encodes and retrieves info so
as to make sense.
Why Bartletts participants produced distorted recalls of
--They used their schemata for stories and regularized the
original folktale, making it conforming more to their own
cultural expectations of how a story should proceed.
Autobiographical Memory
--events that occurred in personal past.
Marigold Linton: study her own recall of events from life
Real-world memories are much more durable than those of
lab experiments.
Also recorded protocols of her thinking aloud as she tried to
date items.
Use problem-solving strategies: reconstruct
Brewer: wear beepers, recall last two hours
Good overall retention. Memory was better for actions than
for thoughts, better for memorable events than random events,
better for occurrence in infrequent location.
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