Textbook Notes (290,000)
CA (170,000)
UTSC (20,000)
Psychology (10,000)
PSYB57H3 (300)
Chapter 1

chapter 1


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB57H3
Professor
Gabriela Ilie
Chapter
1

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Chapter 1
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY:
HISTORY, METHODS, AND PARADIGMS
INFLUENCES ON THE STUDY OF COGNITION
Aristotle and Plato: wrote extensively on the nature of memory
Plato--likened storing sth in memory to writing on a wax tablet.
Compared the mind to an aviary in which many birds are flying,
and memory retrieval to trying to catch a specific bird.
Empiricism
Knowledge comes from an individuals own experience.
Recognize individual differences in genetics, but emphasize
human natures malleable or changeable aspects.
Believe ppl are the way they are, and have the capabilities they
have, largely bcuz of previous learning (through the mental
association)
Locke, two distinct ideas could become joined in the
mind simply bcuz they happened to occur or to be
presented to the individual at the same time
Environment plays a powerful role in determining ones
intellectual abilities.
Nativism
Emphasizes the role of constitutional factors
Some cognitive functions come built in, as part of our legacy as
human beings. Hard-wired functions (such as STM) are
attributed to innate structures of the human mind that form at
birth, are not learned as a result of experience.
Structuralism
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Wilhelm Wundt, James Baldwin
Discover the laws and principles that explained immediate conscious
experience.
Want to identity the simplest essential units of the mind—mental
elements
Introspection
The raw materials of consciousness were sensory and thus “below the level
of meaning.
Any conscious thought resulted from a combination of sensations that
could be defined in terms of four properties:
mode, quality, intensity, and duration.
W/ proper training, ppl could detect and report the workings of their
own minds.
Laboratory
Functionalism
William James
Why the mind works the way it does? —the purpose of the mind’s
various operations.
Darwinian evolutionary theory, tried to extend biological conceptions
of adaptation to psychological phenomena.
Real-life situations
Behaviourism
Ivan Pavlov, Edward Thorndike, John Watson, B. F. Skinner
Regarded as a branch of functionalism
Banished unobservable, subjective mental states and processes.
Rejected introspection (subjective nature, untestable)
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Watson
Banished all mental phenomena from use
Encouraged psychologists to think in terms of measures and
research methods that moved beyond subjective introspection.
B. F. Skinner
Mental representation (internal depictions of info)
Tolman, even rats have goals and expectations.
Animals had both expectations and internal representations that
guided their behaviour.
Gestalt Psychology
Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, Woflgang Kohler
Psychological phenomenal could not be reduced to simple elements
but rather analyzed in their entirety.
Study mainly perception and problem solving
An observer did not construct a coherent perception from simple, elementary
sensory aspects of an experience but instead apprehended the total structure
of an experience as a whole.
Reject structuralism, functionalism, and behaviourism as offering
incomplete accounts of psychological and cognitive experiences.
The mind imposes its own structure and organization on stimuli,
organizes perceptions into wholes.
The Study of Individual Differences
Francis Galton
Intellectual differences among ppl
How large a role genetics plays in intelligence?
Measure the ability and note its variation among different individuals.
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