Textbook Notes (280,000)
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PSYB64H3 (200)
Chapter 15

PSYB64H3 Chapter 15: Detailed Textbook Notes - Chapter #15


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB64H3
Professor
Janelle Leboutillier
Chapter
15

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CHAPTER 15- NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS
Figure 15.1 soccer headers can be risky
o heading the ball is a frequently used technique in soccer, adding to the
excitement of the game
o the use of proper heading technique is likely to be quite safe
o concerns have been raised regarding the long-term effects of repeated
heading on cognition
BRAIN DAMAGE
damage can occur due to interruptions in the blood supply and from blows to the
head
growth of tumors and the abnormal electrical activity of seizures can also interrupt
normal brain functioning
STROKE
circulation of blood to neural tissue can be interrupted by ruptures and blockages of
the blood vessels serving the brain
stroke rai’s lood suppl is iterrupted  either leedig or sudde lokage of
the blood vessels (interruption of blood supply to the brain)
o risk factors: age, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, high cholesterol, obesity,
use of alcohol, cocaine, amphetamines, heroin and other drugs
o risk is inc when arteries are narrowed gradually by conditions such as
arteriosclerosis, hardening of the arteries
cerebral hemorrhage-/bleeding in the brain results from hypertension (high blood
pressure), structural defects in the arteries serving the brain
o caused by aneurysms- balloon like bulges in the walls of arteries
o caused by blood diseases leukemia/exposure to toxic chemicals
o fatal due to brain damage they produce by interfering with the blood supply
to the neurons and by flooding areas of the brain with salty blood that
dehydrates and kills nearby neurons
ischemia- inadequate blood flow results in insufficient quantities of oxygen being
delivered to tissue
o low oxygen levels
o death of neural tissue (infarct)
infarct- area of dead neural tissue , cause changes in consciousness,
sensation or the ability t move, depending on their size and location
o results from interruptions to the supplies of oxygen that reach neurons and
glia served by the affected blood vessels
o cells in the middle layers of cortex and hippocampus is the most vulnerable
transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) produce brief (24 hour or less) episode of stroke
symptoms that does not cause permanent damage , strong predictors of subsequent
stroke
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material causing blockage of blood vessel can be classified as either a thrombosis or
embolism
thrombosis lokage that does’t oe fro its poit of origi i a lood essel
embolism- blood vessel blockage that originated elsewhere and traveled to its current
location
Onley excitotoxicity ability of excess glutamate to kill neurons
Rothman high concentrations of magnesium blocks 1 type of glutamate receptor
(NMDA receptor)
Cell death after strokes is caused by excess glutamate activity triggered by disruptions
in the delivery of oxygen
Excess glutamate entering a neuron = cell death
o aoral aliu atiit i ell stiulates 4 Eeutioer ezes that
daage the ell’s eerg stores, eraes, tostruture ad DNA
penumbra- area of tissue surrounding an infarct
HEAD INJURIES
traumatic brain injuries (TBI)- physical damage to the brain
o caused by traffic accidents, gunshot wounds, falls
o 2 categories
open head injuries- brain is penetrated, as in a gunshot wound or
fractures of the skull in which fragment of bone enters the brain
concussions /close head injuries - blow to the head without
penetration of the brain or from a blow to another part of the body
that results in force transmitted to the brain
mild (no/very brief periods of unconsciousness to severe
(coma)
coup0 site of the blow - brain might be damaged by
compression of the skull against the neural tissue, area of
brain damage at the site of the blow to the head
countercoup- area of brain damage that occurs on the opp
side of the head from the original side of the blow/coup
subdural (under dura patter) hematoma
o mass of clotted blood (like a bruise) that forms btw the dura matter and
arachnoid following a head injury
white matter damage can occur due to twisting of the brain within the skull in
response to the blow
postconcussion syndrome (PCS)- set of symptoms that follow concussion for a period
of days to years, including headache, cognitive deficits and emotional changes
o cognitive outcomes : lack of concentration, reduction in processing speed
and deficits in other higher- order cognitive functions such as attention and
memory
o physical symptoms headache, emotional symptoms depression and
irritability
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o PCS is correlated with damage in a # of brain structures including both white
matter (corpus callosum and fornix) and gray matter (upper brainstem, base
of frontal lobes, medial temporal lobes)
Dementia puglisitica severe form of chronic traumatic brain injury (CTBI) often
experienced by boxers
o type of chronic traumatic brain injury (CTBI) causes slurred speech,
memory impairment, personality changes, lack of coordination, Parkinson-
like syndrome
result of repeated concussions
boxers who carry E^4 variant of the APOE gene perso has Alzheier’s disease –
more likely to develop CTBI
BRAIN TUMORS
after uterus, brain it the next organ to give rise to tumors
o tumors- independent growth of tissue that lacks purpose
o do’t gro fro ature euros eause these ells do’t repliate
o brain tumors arise from glial cells and from the cells of the meninges
o small # of tumors originate in the cell lining the ventricles
malignant tumors type of abnormal cell growth that, lacking boundaries, invades
the surrounding tissue and is very likely to recur following surgical removal
o malignant tumors shed cells which travels to other sites of the body and start
new tumors
o malignant tumors shed cells travel to other sites of the body and start new
tumors
metastasis migration of cancerous cells from one part of the body to another
tumors that originate in the brain rarely metastasize but when they do so,, the shed
cells travel through CSF to other parts of the nervous system as opposed to travelling
through bloodstream to other organs
benign tumors- abnormal cell growth that develops within its own membrane and is
unlikely to recur after surgery to remove it
o do’t etastasize
o if its located where it cant be surgically removed, it can be life threatening as
malignant
symptoms of tumors
produce symptoms due to inc pressure within the skull
headache, vomiting, double vision, reduced heart rate, reduced alertness, seizures
tumor on occipital lobe affect vision
tumors in frontal lobe changes in emotionality and ability to plan beh
Types of tumors
can be identified according to the tissue from which they arise
glioma - develops from glial cells
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