Textbook Notes (381,055)
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PSYB64H3 (205)
Chapter 15

Chapter 15 Textbook Notes

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB64H3
Professor
Janelle Leboutillier

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PSYB64: An Introduction to Physiological Psychology
Chapter 15: Neurological Disorders
Brain Damage
- Soccer players perform worse on tests for attention, memory, and planning compared to
swimmers and track athletes
o Many have cerebral atrophy because of head injuries
- Brain protected by skull bones/meninges, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and blood-brain barrier
Stroke
- Cells in nervous system (NS) rely on oxygen which is supplied by rich network of blood vessels
o Circulation of blood to neural tissue can be ruptured/blocked t can cause serious
damage to brain
- Stroke = type of brain damage caused by an interruption of blood supply to the brain
- Risk factors of stroke = age, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, high cholesterol, obesity, alcohol
use, cocaine, amphetamines, heroin, and other drugs
- Atherosclerosis also increases risk of stroke = when arteries are narrowed/hardened
- Cerebral hemorrhage = condition caused by bleeding in the brain
o Gradually results from hypertension (high blood pressure) or structural defects in
arteries serving brain
o Sometimes occur due to aneurysms = balloon-like bulge in artery wall
o Can occur from diseases t leukemia, exposure to toxic chemicals, etc.
o Usually fatal because of damage produced by blocking blood supply to neurons and
flooding areas of brain with salty blood that dehydrates and kills neurons
- Ischemia = condition where inadequate blood flow results in insufficient quantities of oxygen
being delivered to tissue
o Low oxygen levels
o Can result in neural tissue death in an area = infarct t causes changes in consciousness,
sensation, ability to move (depends on size/location)
- Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) = brief (less than 24 hours) episode of stroke symptoms that
}v[µuvvuPt strong predictors of subsequent strokes
- Thrombosis = blockage Z}v[u}À from its point of origin in blood vessel
- Embolism = blood vessel blockage that travel through smaller and smaller blood vessels until
forms actually blockage
o Blockage in small blood vessels are less damaging than in large blood vessels but
multiple small strokes can cause damage
- Cells in middle layers of cortex and hippocampus are most vulnerable to ischemia
- Excitotoxicity t John Olney = ability of excess glutamate to kill neurons
o Now believe that cell death after stroke is caused by excess glutamate activity triggered
by lack of oxygen
- Excess glutamate in neuron initiates cascade of events t leads to cell death
www.notesolution.com
PSYB64: An Introduction to Physiological Psychology
o v}uoo]µu]À]Ç]voo]uµoðZÆµ]}v[vÌÇuZuPoo[
energy stores, membranes, cytostructure, and DNA
- To reduce risk of stroke = surgery, reduce formation of thromboses and emboli, reduce blood
pressure
- Penumbra = areas of tissue surrounding an infarct t surgery used to save neurons/glia in this
area
Head Injuries
- Traumatic brain injuries = physical damage to the brain
o Usually caused by traffic accidents, gunshot wounds, falls
- Divided into 2 categories:
o Open head injuries = penetration of skull
Usually because of gunshot wound or fractures of skull where bone fragments
enter brain
Most fatal when damage is caused in ventricles, both hemispheres, or multiple
lobes in brain
o Concussions/closed head injuries = occurs because of blows to the head or to the body
that caus^]uµo]À_(}vu] to brain
Can be mild = no loss of consciousness or for only a brief time
Can be severe = coma
Can cause physical, behavioural, and cognitive problems t lasts for months or
can be permanent
- Coup = damage to brain where blow to the head occurs
o Can cause damage by compression of the skull against neural tissue
- Countercoup = damage to brain on the opposite side of blow because force of blow pushes
brain against the skull opposite the coup
- Severe coup/countercoup can be have subdural hematoma = mass of clotted blood (like bruise)
that forms between dura mater and arachnoid after head injury
- White matter damage can occur due to twisting of the brain within the skull in response to blow
- Pressure exerted on brain because of welling of injured tissues can cause damages or
interruptions in normal function
- Post-concussion syndrome = set of symptoms that follow concussion for period of days-years t
headaches, cognitive deficits, emotional changes, etc.
o Cognitive deficits = lack of concentration, reduction in processing speed, deficits in
higher-order cognitive functions (memory, attention)
o Physical symptoms = headache
o Emotional changes = depression, irritability, etc.
o Persistence of PCS correlated with damage in brain structures t white matter = corpus
callosum and fornix, and gray matter = upper brainstem, base of frontal lobes, medial
temporal lobes
- Repeated mild head injuries can still be damaging
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Description
PSYB64: An Introduction to Physiological Psychology Chapter 15: Neurological Disorders Brain Damage - Soccer players perform worse on tests for attention, memory, and planning compared to swimmers and track athletes o Many have cerebral atrophy because of head injuries - Brain protected by skull bonesmeninges, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF ), and blood-brain barrier Stroke - Cells in nervous system (NS) rely on oxygen which is supplied by rich network of blood vessels o Circulation of blood to neural tissue can be rupturedblocked J can cause serious damage to brain - Stroke = type of brain damage caused by an interruption of blood supply to the brain - Risk factors of stroke = age, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, high cholesterol, obesity, alcohol use, cocaine, amphetamines, heroin, and other drugs - Atherosclerosis also increases risk of stroke = when arteries are narrowedhardened - Cerebral hemorrhage = condition caused by bleeding in the brain o Gradually results from hypertension (high blood pressure) or structural defects in arteries serving brain o Sometimes occur due to aneurysms = balloon-like bulge in artery wall o Can occur from diseases J leukemia, exposure to toxic chemicals, etc. o Usually fatal because of damage produced by blocking blood supply to neurons and flooding areas of brain with salty blood that dehydrates and kills neurons - Ischemia = condition where inadequate blood flow results in insufficient quantities of oxygen being delivered to tissue o Low oxygen levels o Can result in neural tissue death in an area = infarct J causes changes in consciousness, sensation, ability to move (depends on sizelocation) - Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) = brief (less than 24 hours) episode of stroke symptoms that }ZL[ ZKLLK2J strong predictors of subsequent strokes - Thrombosis = blockage Z}ZL[K} from its point of origin in blood vessel - Embolism = blood vessel blockage that travel through smaller and smaller blood vessels until forms actually blockage o Blockage in small blood vessels are less damaging thanin large blood vessels but multiple small strokes can cause damage - Cells in middle layers of cortex and hippocampus are most vulnerable to ischemia - Excitotoxicity J John Olney = ability of excess glutamate to kill neurons o Now believe that cell death after stroke is caused by excess glutamate activity triggered by lack of oxygen - Excess glutamate in neuron initiates cascade of events J leads to cell death www.notesolution.com
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