PSYB64H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Basal Ganglia, Frontal Lobe, Caudate Nucleus

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Published on 15 Aug 2012
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB64H3
PSYB64 Chapter 2 Key Terms:
Abducens Nerve (VI) – a cranial nerve that controls the muscles of the eye
Afferent Nerve – a nerve that carries sensory information to the CNS
Amygdala – an almond-shaped structure in the rostral temporal lobes that is part of the
limbic system
Anterior – a directional term meaning towards the head of a 4-legged animal
Anteriror Commissure – a small bundle of axons that connects structures in the right and
left cerebral hemispheres
Arachnoid Layerthe middle layer of the meninges covering the CNS
Association Cortex areas of the cortex that link and integrate sensory and motor
information
Auditory Nerve (VIII) – the cranial nerve that carries info from inner ear to the brain
Autonomic Nervous Systemthe division of the PNS that directs the activity of the
glands, organs, and smooth muscles of the body
Axial Sectionan anatomical section that divides the brain from top to bottom
Basal Ganglia – a collection of nuclei within the cerebral hemispheres that participate in
the control of movement
Biofeedback a set of techniques that enable people to control typically unconscious or
involuntary functions such as blood pressure
Brainstemthe lower two thirds of the brain, including the hindbrain and midbrain
Broca’s Area an area near the primary motor cortex in the frontal lobe that participates
in speech production
Carotid Artery – one of the two major blood vessels that travel up the sides of the neck to
supply the brain
Caudal – a directional term meaning towards the tail of a 4-legged animal
Caudate Nucleus – one of the major nuclei that make up the basal ganglia
Central Canal – the small midline channel in the spinal cord that contains CSF
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Central Nervous Systemthe brain and the spinal cord
Central Sulcus – the fissure separating the frontal and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex
Cerebellum – a structure located in the metencephalon that participates in balance, muscle
tone, muscle coordination, some types of leaning, and possibly higher cognitive functions
in humans
Cerebral Aqueduct – the small channel running along the midline of the midbrain that
connects the third and fourth ventricles
Cerebral Hemispheres – two large globular structures that make up the telencephalon of
the forebrain
Cerebrospinal Fluid – special plasmalike fluid circulating within the ventricles of the
brain, the central canal of the spinal cord, and the subarachnoid space
Cervical Nerve – one of the first eight spinal nerves that serve the area of the head, neck,
and arms
Chordates – the phylum of animals that possess true brains and spinal cords; aka
vertebrates
Choroid Plexus – the lining of the ventricles, which secretes the CSF
Cingulate Cortexa segment of older cortex just dorsal to the corpus callosum that is part
of the limbic system
Coccygeal Nervethe most caudal of the spinal nerves
Cochlear Nucleus – a nucleus found in the pons that receives information about sound
from the inner ear
Contralateral – a directional term referring to structures on opposite sides of a midline
Coronal Section – an anatomical section dividing the brain front to back, parallel to the
face. Also known as a frontal section
Corpus Callosum – a wide band of axons connecting the right and left cerebral
hemispheres
Cranial Nerves – twelve pairs of nerves that exit the brain as part of the PNS
Diencephalon – a division of the forebrain made up of the hypothalamus and the thalamus
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Document Summary

Abducens nerve (vi) a cranial nerve that controls the muscles of the eye. Afferent nerve a nerve that carries sensory information to the cns. Amygdala an almond-shaped structure in the rostral temporal lobes that is part of the limbic system. Anterior a directional term meaning towards the head of a 4-legged animal. Anteriror commissure a small bundle of axons that connects structures in the right and left cerebral hemispheres. Arachnoid layer the middle layer of the meninges covering the cns. Association cortex areas of the cortex that link and integrate sensory and motor information. Auditory nerve (viii) the cranial nerve that carries info from inner ear to the brain. Autonomic nervous system the division of the pns that directs the activity of the glands, organs, and smooth muscles of the body. Axial section an anatomical section that divides the brain from top to bottom.

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